- Origin of Name
- Facts & Statistics
- National Anthem
The Berber name Rebu in ancient Egyptian hieroglyphics.
The Origin of The Name Libya:
There are several theories attempting
to explain the origin of the name, but it is almost certain that it comes from
the ancient Berber tribe known to the ancient Egyptians as Rebu or Ribu;
from which the Greeks derived
"Libya", and which the Arabs of today's Egypt know as Lubia,
whence Lubians, in line with their relatives and neighbours the Nubians.
The name "Libia", as found in the archaeological site of "Qaser
Libia", in Cyrenaica, is widely thought to have been derived from the ancient
village of Olbia. Some sources also derive the
names "Libya" and "Lubda" (Leptis
Magna) from Lewwa, one of the Berber ancestors given
by Ibn Khaldun. However, the Greek form Leptis itself was derived from the
Berber and Punic Libqi, which
Bates linked to the Berber Ribu.
According to the Berber
Leo Africanus (1600, p.13), it was called "Libya" by the Greeks,
"Because it was in old time conquered by Libs the king of Mauritania.
In the holie scriptures it is called Chamesis, by the Arabians and Ethiopians
Alkebulam, and by the Indians Besecath.” In the Bible the Libyans appeared
as the Lubim, or Lebahim, the son of Mizraim;
which Oric Bates was the first to identify with the modern variant Ta-Mazigh-t
-- an appellation widely applied to the proud Berbers of North Africa.
The proposed etymology of 'Libya' being moisture has no support
other than the "Libyan
wind" which brought rain to Greek mainland; and as it is obvious that
Greek Libu is the same as Egyptian Ribu one does not need to propose
a Greek etymology for a name that is not Greek. The proper etymology must be
sought in the mother language of the given word - the ancient Libyan language:
Tamazight, others know as 'Berber'. Egyptian and Berber languages are
both members of the Hamitic branch of the Hamito-Samitic linguistic family, and
many of the ancient Egyptian and Berber mythical gods and goddesses are still
represented on the rock art of the great Mother Sahara, in what is known as the
largest collection of prehistoric
art in the world: well over one hundred thousand sites.
Ancient Libyans, as pictured by the ancient
The Mythology of The Name Libya:
Libya was also the name of the Goddess known to the Greeks
as the Goddess Libya, and also of the whole continent before the Romans
named it Africa after the Berber Goddess Afri. In mythology, the "Goddess
Libya" had three sons by the Libyan Sea-God Poseidon: Belus, Agenor and
Lelex. King Belus ruled at Chemmis or Chamesis of Leo Africanus,
Agenor migrated to Cana'an (the Middle East), and Lelex became king
of Megara. The wife of Belus Anchinoe, daughter of the Nile-god Nilus,
bore him three sons: Aegyptus, Danaus and Cepheus, and one daughter: Lamia,
the Libyan Snake-goddess. The myth relates an interesting "deception tale" in
which Danaus was sent to rule Libya where he had fifty daughters, and Aegyptus,
who had fifty sons, ruled over Egypt.
The Political Name of Libya:
This map shows how the country looked like during the colonial periods.
A look at the map of Egypt (bordered red) shows traces of the ancient Libya,
as in the "Libyan Desert", the site of the Libyan
Desert Glass, and the "Libyan Plateau". No much was left
of Libya then; just an Italian-occupied
regency called TRIPOLI. In
1918 the Tripolitanian
Republic was created to become the first ever republic in North Africa & the
Middle East; only to be destroyed by the Italians a few years later.
Map of Libya &
North Africa Prior to WW2, Showing The Country Tripoli (in green).
The actual name as a modern country came into effect
for the first time around 1934 when the provinces of Tripolitania and Cyrenaica
were united as Libya during the Italian occupation; initially Fezzan was not
included, but after the independence the three provinces were united as one country,
when on the 24th of December 1951 Libya was declared as the United Kingdom
Shortly after the installation of Colonel Mua’mmar al-Qaddafi
(Gaddafi) in 1969, Libya became known as the Great Socialist People’s
Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, where the last word became synonymous with Libya.
Many Libyans feel the introduction of the term "Arab" by the government
into the name of Libya does not democratically represent all the true populations
of Libya, originally inhabited by the Berbers ('Imazighen'), and still
is inhabited by the Berbers in various parts of the country, including most of
Nafousa Mountain, Zuwarah, Ghadames, Jalo, Awjlah, and most of the Sahara,
the home of the Berber Tuareg confederacies.
However, "Libya" is
back as the official name of the country after the installation of the
National Transitional Council (NTC) in 2011; only to be changed once more on
the 8th of January 2013 by the GNC
(دولة ليبيا), until
the final name is decided by the forthcoming, final constitution. No
one knows why the word "country" was added to the official name - maybe
to distinguish it from "The Goddess Libya"!
Map of Ancient Libya, showing the locations of the native Berber tribes
of Ancient Egypt.
The above ancient map, which is over 2000 years
older than the colonial map, shows there was no Egypt, just a huge expanse of
land known to classical geographers and historians as Libya, to the extent
that the name Libya also came to designate the whole continent of Africa.
When the Romans arrived
through the western gates (Tripolitania and Tunisia), they adopted the
name Aprica or
Africa, originally from the Berber name of the local tribes who inhabited the
region, as in Yefren today, and thereafter Libya became known as Africa. This
means that the names
"Libya" and "Africa"
are both Berber in origin.
Facts & Statistics
- Name: Libya (ليبيا).
- Nationality: Libyan (لیبی , ليبيية).
- Capital: Tripoli.
- Area: 1.759.540 sq. km.
- Coastline: 1,770 km.
- Week Holidays: Friday & Saturday.
- GDP per capita: $16,000.
- Working Hours Summer: 7:30 am to 3:00 pm; Winter: 8:00 am to 3:30 pm.
- Libyan Population: 5 million approximately.
- Immigrant Population: 1.5 million approximately.
- Total Population: 6,461,454 (July 2010).
- Literacy: 82.6%.
- Installation of King Idris: 24/12/1951.
- Installation of Col. Gaddafi: 01/09/1969.
- February Uprising/Revolution: 17 February 2011.
- Arrival of NTC: 05 March 2011.
- Liberation Day: 23/10/2011 (Installation of the NTC).
- Average annual rainfall: 400 mm.
- Internet (TLD): .ly.
- Telephone: country code: +218; Tripoli: 021.
- Emergency Telephone line: 193.
- Ambulance Telephone line: 191.
- Driving: on the right-hand-side of the road.
- Alcohol: all alcoholic drinks were prohibited by Gaddafi.
- Weights: kilograms; measurements: meter.
- Life expectancy: 77 years (women), 72 years (men).
- Monetary Unit (currency): Libyan Dinar (LYD).
- Climate: Mediterranean along the coast; dry desert in the interior.
- Average January Temperature: 12 degrees Celsius (about 53 degrees Fahrenheit).
- Average July Temperature: 40 degrees Celsius (about 104 degrees Fahrenheit).
- Ethnic groups: Arabs, Berbers and Tebu (97%); Africans, Asians, Europeans
- Electricity: 220, 230, 240 volts - 50 Hz (plugs: two round pins, and three
- Post: ordinary and express mail; international DHL available in large cities.
- Natural Hazards: sand storms; hot, dry, dust-laden wind (gibli) in
Spring and Fall.
- Location: North Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, Egypt, Tunisia,
Algeria, Niger, Chad and Sudan.
The Flags of Libya
(1): Flag of the Tripolitanian
Republic (1918 - 1923).
(2): Flag of Cyrenaica (1949 -
The name Sanusi (or Senusi) refers to a political-religious
order, said to have been founded in 1837 by the grandfather of King Idris, the
Grand Sanusi (Sayyid Muhammad Ibn Ali as-Senussi). The black flag with the white
star and the crescent was adopted by Idris after he proclaimed the
eastern region of Libya as "The Emirate of Cyrenaica" on
the 1st of March 1949, and appointed himself the Emir of Cyrenaica. Even though
the UK did aknowledge the Emirate, the UN failed to recognise the new country.
Two years later (in 1951) he was installed the King of Libya.
(3): The Flag of "The Libyan Kingdom"
(1951 - 1969).
On the 24th of December 1951 the country was declared an independent state,
under the name of The Libyan Kingdom, also known as The United Kingdom of Libya
- uniting Cyrenaica, Tripolitania and Fezzan. After the Emir of Cyrenaica was
installed the King of Libya, Cyrenaica's flag was modified by the addition
of red and green, supposedly to represent Tripolitania and Fezzan.
(4): Flag of the "Libyan
(1969 - 1972).
(5): Flag of the "Federation
of Arab Republics".
The federation is a short-lived union between Libya, Syria and Egypt.
(1972 - 1977).
(6): Flag of "The Great
Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya"
(7): The current official flag of "Libya"
It is not clear how exactly the flag came to be adopted, nor why a flag of
a "corrupt" monarchy should be used to represent
what meant to be a "revolutionary" Libya. The Libyan Kingdom flag was
adopted early on during the February Uprising of 2011, and in a matter of weeks
it was effectively used all over the country by protesters, fighters and web
masters as well as by the NTC and the international media; followed by a range
of flag-decorated products quickly appearing in the market, ranging from hand-held
flags, scarves, hats, cups, badges and key-rings among other novelty items.
The flag is now once more the official flag of Libya since the 23rd of October
2011 (The Liberation Day) -- the day Libya was officially
declared liberated by the NTC from the 42-year rule of Gaddafi. The flag was
defined by the NTC in its interim Constitutional
Declaration (Article 3).
(0): The unofficial, cultural
flag of the Berbers (2011).
This flag was used by the Berbers during the uprising
as an expression of freedom and revolt against oppression. It was carried,
together with the independence flag, during the February wars by the
Berber natives in Zuwarah, Nafousa Mountain, and the oases of the Sahara,
as well as by their Libyan Arab brothers from Mesratha and Benghazi. The flag
does not represent any political inclinations and has nothing to do with dividing
the country, as some Libyans were quick to respond. It is a mere gesture of one's
identity and culture, previously oppressed by all the regimes of Libya. Nearly
all the Berbers are almost united in Libya staying united, and have no separate
Libya is located in North Africa and is bordered by the Mediterranean sea
from the north, Egypt from the east, Tunisia and Algeria from the west, and Niger,
Chad and Sudan from the south. Being the fourth largest country in Africa (1.759.540
sq. km), its coastline stretches for about 1900 kilometres, of sand beaches,
clear water, and pure hot sunshine. Geographically speaking, Libya is the African gate
through which early human civilisations found their way to Egypt, the Middle
East, Asia and Europe. Its strategic location was equally responsible for
the successive waves of invasions throughout history, from the arrival of the
Phoenicians down to Hitler's attack on Tobruk.
The highest temperature in the world was recorded in Libya
on the 13th of September 1922, in el-Azizia, was a staggering 136.4 degree Fahrenheit
(or 58°C: degrees Celsius). During the period between May and September the coastal
temperature can rise to 38°C (100F), while in the southern parts of the country
it can reach 50°C. Generally it is recommended to visit Libya between late October
and April, when the temperature is generally mellow. However, be prepared as
winter temperatures, especially at night, can drop to below 0C. Snow does fall
sometimes in Libya, but only in the mountains, just as it does in Morocco’s Jebel
North Africa’s highest peak (4167 km).
The population density varies from region to region. For example,
along the coast and in the regions of Tripolitania and Cyrenaica the density
is about 50 persons per a square kilometre, while in Fezzan it drops to less
than one person - the reason, of course, being nothing other than the huge expanse
of barren sand we know as desert. The ethnic groups of Libya are mainly Arabs,
Berbers, Hausa and Tebu. There are also
immigrant communities, mostly from North African countries, like Egypt, Tunisia
and Morocco; the Middle East; Sub-Saharan Africa; and a very small number from
European and Asian countries.
Land Borders & Seaports of Libya:
- Ras Ejdayr (Tunisian-Libyan border), also spelt as: Ras Ejdir, Ras Jdayr.
- Musaid [Emsaa'd] (Egyptian-Libyan border).
- Debdab (Algerian-Libyan border), Ghadames.
- Wazen (Tunisian-Libyan border), Nalut.
- Ghat or Tenalkum (Algerian-Libyan border), Ghat.
- Ethoom or Alqatroun (Niger & Chad-Libyan border).
- Alkufra (Sudan-Libyan border).
- Ras Lanuf
- Briga Commercial
Administrative Divisions of Libya
At the highest level, Libya is divided into three regions
or provinces: Tripolitania, with its capital Tripoli; Cyrenaica, with Benghazi
being the second largest city in Libya; and Fezzan, with Sabha
being its political centre. These then became the three mouh'afadat or muhafazat (municipalities),
compromising twenty five districts or baladiyat (town halls), which
later were replaced by thirty two sha'biyat (plus three administrative
regions), before they were finally reduced to twenty two districts, known as sha'biyat or shabiyat (شعبيات),
which can be translated as '*populates'.
The current administrative municipalities (numbers are
shown in the above map):
An-Nuqat Al-Khams (1)
Tarabulus (Tripoli) (3)
Al-Jabal Al-Akhdar (10)
Wadi Al-Hayat (17)
Wadi As-Shati (19)
Al-Jabal Al-Gharbi (21)
here for an image of a table showing the administrative municipalities and
their constituent towns and cities, as defined by the ousted government.