Libya Science

science in Libya: knowledge, not money.

As a result of the Libyan and American scientific cooperation in the last decade, an agreement have been reached to work together on a number of issues including health care issues, seismic monitoring, remote sensing, water management, and solar power technologies. On the 29th of March 2006, NASA's scientists travelled to the Libyan Sahara to study the total solar eclipse.  

Researchers worldwide, aided by Nasa and the United Nations, are also working with Libyan scientists through the International Heliophysical Year 2007, to study the Solar System, and particularly the interaction and the working of the different heavenly bodies as one system. The scientists are also working to place space physics and geophysics instruments in local institutions.

As part of Libya's renewed interest in science and scientific research, Libya requested from the French company Sagem to provide the country with a $13 million robotic telescope, which will be dedicated to astronomy and education. The telescope, which will be set up in Libya’s southeastern deserts, will have a 2-meter-diameter mirror, most suitable for studying variable stars that require continuous observation. The telescope will be protected by a network of four weather stations deployed around the centre to warn of  approaching sandstorms that could damage its delicate optics.

The Libyan government has also renewed interest in archaeological research and called for steps to be taken to document and preserve Libya's archaeological heritage. This includes the study and preservation of prehistoric art sites across the Libyan portion of the Sahara, like Germa for example.



National Agency for Scientific Research

(الهيئة الوطنية للبحث العلمي)
Website:  www.nasr.ly



The 2006 Total Sun Eclipse over Libya: 4 minutes 7 seconds

total sun eclipse in Libya
Actual photo of the eclipse. Wednesday 29 March 2006.

The Moon passed before the face of the glorious and majestic sun during the 4th total solar eclipse of this century; turning the bright desert sky into a twilight zone for a short period of four minutes and seven seconds. The path of totality started in Brazil, then crossed the Atlantic Ocean to Ivory Coast, then Ghana, Togo, Benin, Nigeria, Niger, Chad, Libya, Egypt, Turkey, then crossed Asia to end over Mongolia.

The maximum duration of the eclipse occurred over Libya: 4 minutes and 7 seconds, at 10:11:18 UT at location 23.14°N 16.75°E.



Earth Science Society of Libya (ESSL)

The Earth Science Society of Libya was registered in 1974, in place of the Petroleum Exploration Society of Libya (PESL - established in 1958). The Society has organised many geological expeditions to Fezzan, Southeast Libya, Jabal al Qarqaf and other geological sites in Libya, as well as to Egypt, Chad, Tunisia, Turkey, Greece, Italy, Sicily, Spain and Morocco. In November 2003 the Society was re-registered with the National Scientific Research Authority as a non-profit scientific society.


Libya's Great Man-Made River Project (GMRP)


The Great Man-Made River (GMMR), one of the largest engineering projects in the world.





Reynolds, J.E et al. 1995, Planning for aquaculture development In Libya: A review
Tripoli/Rome. FAO. 94p. Fl: DP/LIB/88/009 -
Fl: GCP/LIB/021/lsDB, Field Document 9 (En).
Food And Agriculture Organization Of The United Nations (FAO).



The Libyan Centre for Remote Sensing and Space Science (LCRSSS)
Address: P.O. Box 82819
Phone: +218 21 607004 - 14
Website: lcrss.org/


The centre was established in 1989, in Tripoli, and currently has 5 research centres and nearly 300 workers. The centre conducts research relating to remote sensing and space technologies, and provides information and guidelines for other organisation. The centre also runs an Earthquake Centre, which aims to study the entire country and produce a complete map of the active and inactive regions, which will be then used for planning and building new projects, like power stations and other important projects.

The centre's objectives include:

  • Locating underground water reserves.
  • Studying the possible locations for dams and the study of all other water resources.
  • Preparing geographical and topographical maps.
  • Mapping the locations of underground mineral resources like mines and oil.
  • Studying the properties of soil and agricultural produce.
  • Observation and control of urban developments and expansion of cities.
  • Planning and determining the locations of new roads, railways and pipelines.
  • Studying water pollution.
  • Studying desertification.
  • Studying the sky and observing the heavenly bodies.
  • Mapping the active and inactive earthquake regions in Libya.


Click here for an image of a seismic activity in the Med, 16/02/2009.
From The Libyan Centre for Remote Sensing and Space Science website.





International Energy Foundation (IEF)

The International Energy Foundation is an independent, non governmental and non profit-making organisation, established in 1989 to research new and better ways to transmit and conserve energy and the environment; to disseminate knowledge through symposia, publications and other media; and to recommend and promote standards for energy consumption and production.

International Energy Foundation
P.O. Box:  83617.
Telephone:  +218 - 21 - 3331832 / 3331833  / 3331834 
Fax:  +218 - 21 - 3331831 


Libyan Society of Science
Tripoli University
Physics Department


Environmental General Authority (EGA)
Researching, protecting and preserving the environment
Phone: +218 21 4872188 / 4873763


Tajoura Nuclear Research Centre
Address: P.O. BOX 30878
Phone: +218 21 607021 / 607025


Agricultural Research Centre (ARC)
Contact: Dr. Fawzi A. Taher
Address: P. O. Box 2480
Phone: +218 21 3616866


Arab Development Institute
P.O. BOX 12312
Science Humanities


Environmental General Authority - EGA
Scientific controlling and consulting body concern.


Industrial Research Centre (IRC)
Tajoura P.O. BOX 3633
Research Science IRC

Tel: 00218-21- 3691517
Tel: 00218-21- 3691511
Fax:00218-21- 3690028


Marine Biology Research Centre
Marine research


The Geology of Libya, The Fourth Symposium (November, 17-20, 2008, Tripoli): Sedimentary Basins of Libya

The Sedimentary Basins of Libya project was launched in 1990 as a joint project between the National Oil Corporation (NOC) and the Earth Science Society of Libya (ESSL). The fourth symposium will be dedicated to the Geology of Southern Libya, including Al-Kufrah Basin, Murzuq Basin, southern Sirt Basin, Al Qarqaf Arch and the Jabal Bin Ghanimah-Dur al Qussah areas.


Science Teaching in Libya

The Final Report of UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific And Cultural Organisation) - 20 March 1961 to 31 July 1964, by Ali Nashat. UNESCO's suggestions to improving science teaching in Libya.



Final Report of Prof. Luc Montagnier and Prof. Vittorio Colizzi on the Nosocomial HIV infection (Paris, 7 April 2003).

The HIV infection of children at the Al-Fateh Hospital in 1997-1998-99 was thought to have been originated from the use of injection material contaminated by blood from an infected child. All the samples from these children (1997-1998-1999) were found to belong to a similar viral subtype, strongly indicating a common origin.



How Clean Are Rental DVDs?

Isolation of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) From Rented DVDs:

By Khalifa Sifaw Ghenghesh (PhD, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine); Halima Nashnoush (MSc, Department of Botany, Faculty of Sciences); Amal Shaker (BSc, Department of Botany, Faculty of Sciences); Hussam Enaami, MBBS, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine); and Abdualaziz Zorgani (PhD, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Tripoli Univeristy [previously Al-Fateh University], Tripoli, Libya).

"Our findings show that, at least in our region, rental DVDs carry multiple antimicrobial-resistant bacteria, including MRSA, and may play a role in the transmission of these organisms in the community."



Parasitological Contamination In Salad Vegetables In Tripoli-Libya:

By Amal Khalifa Abougrain, Mohamed Hadi Nahaisi, Nuri Sahli Madi, Mohamed Mohamed Saied, and
Khalifa Sifaw Ghenghesh.

The study aims to determine the parasitological contamination of salad vegetables sold at wholesale and retail markets in Tripoli, Libya. Results showed the presence of eggs of Ascaris spp., eggs of Toxocara cati, eggs of Toxocara canis, and eggs of Taenia/Echinococcus spp. in the samples examined. The conclusion was that "Parasitological contamination of raw salad vegetables sold in wholesale and retail markets in Tripoli may pose a health risk to consumers of such products."

The NewScientist has recommended that the best way to wash vegetable and fruits is to soak them in water with plenty of vinegar: just fill your kitchen sink with water, add a generous quantity of vinegar, then put the vegetable and fruits in and leave to soak for about 15 minutes. This has the added benefit of removing most of the water-resistent pesticides and insecticides sprayed over the produce while still growing.



Bacteriological Quality of Drinking Water Obtained From Mosques In Tripoli, Libya:

By Khalifa Sifaw Ghenghesh, Khalifa Belhaj, Amna Algaui, Enas Alturki, Amal Rahouma, and Salaheddin Abeid. (The Libyan Journal Of Infectious Diseases, Vol. 1 No.1 Jan-2007).

The aim of this study was to investigate the bacteriological quality of drinking water provided for worshipers by Mosques in Tripoli. The presence of antibiotic-resistant pathogenic bacteria in drinking water which may pose a health hazard to users, particularly the aged and the immunocompromised, was confirmed. The types of bacteria investigated include coliform, Escherichia coli, Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas sp., fecal streptococci, Aeromonas sp., Klebsiella sp. and Pseudomonas sp.





Department of Geology And Paleontology: Modelling of Ypresian carbonate reservoirs from Libya

Nummulite accumulations form important hydrocarbon reservoirs in North Africa were first developed in the Late Palaeocene, spread over the Tethyan margins during the Eocene and vanished during the Middle Oligocene. Nummulites are a unicellular shelled protozoa with large, coin-shaped, fossil foraminifer, up to 12 cm in diameter. They were widely distributed in limestone formations from the Eocene Epoch to the Miocene Epoch of the Cenozoic. They lived in warm, shallow, marine waters, and are numerous enough to be major rock formers in early Tertiary strata of the circum-Mediterranean region. The pyramids of Egypt were built of blocks of nummulitic limestone.



Libya Before The Sahara

Libya Before the Sahara, by Noel T. Boaz

Screenshot from Libya Before The Sahara (http://issuu.com/ICSM/docs/libyabeforesahara-online)

Libya Before The Sahara, by Professor Noel T. Boaz, of Benghazi's Libyan International Medical University, published by the International Institute for human Evolutionary Research Integrative Centres for Science and Medicine, 2009. The following cover photograph is of As-Sahabi Locality P28 and the Petrified Forest fronting Garet Makada ("Elephant Hill"), west of Sebkhat al-Qunnayyin, Libya.

The site of As-Sahabi, in North Central Libya, is one of the greatest fossil sites in Africa; apparently so because a great river once flowed through this region. The Eo-Sahabi River was rich in marine wildlife including large widehead catfish, Nile perch, sea turtles, sea cows, river dolphins, bream and white sharks, and was surrounded by lush-green trees and many wild animals, chattering birds, bears, hyenas, pigs, monkeys, antelopes, three-toed horses, four-tusked elephants, six-fore-toothed hippos and many more exotic species; all of which have since disappeared into the corridors of history, leaving behind a sea of fossils for the world to see. According to Professor Boaz: "The site of As-Sahabi first became known not as a window to the past, but for window panes."


Read the whole paper at issuu.com




Science News



The Sound of The Big Bang

The Moment Our Universe Was Created:


In a paper titled "BOOMERanG and the Sound of the Big Bang", John G. Cramer has succeeded in simulating the sound of the Big Bang. The sound, he writes:

"Sounds rather like a large jet plane 100 feet off the ground flying over your house in the middle of the night . . .  It's what you might hear if you could "listen" to the cosmic background radiation during the first 760,000 years of the birth of the universe ." Please click here to read the full paper at:

To hear what the Big Bang sounds like,
please click here (staff.washington.edu/seymour/BigBangSound_2.wav) .



Interplanetary Internet


NASA Successfully Tests First Deep Space Internet (www.nasa.gov/):

Sending emails from one star to another, or browsing web pages from other worlds would definitely make the Internet more interesting than it is today. NASA has successfully tested the first deep space communications network modeled on the Internet. NASA's engineers used software called Disruption-Tolerant Networking (DTN) to transmit dozens of space images to and from a NASA spacecraft located about 20 million miles from Earth. More


3-D Printers: Machines That Can Print More Machines


Print Your Own Printer:

Fabbers (3D printers or rapid prototyping machines) are a new generation of machines that can build 3D objects, including electronic components like TV remote controls, by depositing materials drop by drop and layer by layer according to a set of instructions programmed into their internal memory. The materials used will be stored in special compartments just like ink cartridges in ordinary printers. Normal printers print out one layer of ink, while 3-D printers carry on printing more layers until the print out becomes a solid 3-D object.

The technology is set to revolutionise the world because it allows ordinary people the ability to print and thus manufacture complex objects and devices that would normally take special resources, tools and skills and would cost a lot of money.

A fabber can allow you to share your designs with other fabber owners, and therefore the potential to build a global database of designs that other users can use. These designs are the software programs needed for the machine in order to print the desired product. Picture this: you go to the shop and buy a cartridge of plastic, a cartridge of silicon, a cartridge of copper, and a cartridge of glass, then go to the internet and download your favourite design for a particular iPod or MP3 player and print your own, free of charge: you only pay for the cartridges (and the printer of course). Do it yourself   (DIY) has finally become: make it yourself (MIY).

If you find this dangerous knowledge interesting, or if you find this interesting knowledge dangerous, then you can find out more about it at: Fab@Home

Youtube video





Haua Fteah Cave

The cave of Haua Fteah, the largest cave in the Mediterranean basin and one of the largest caves in the world, remains one of the best evidences that humans have existed continuously in one site in Libya for 100,000 years, and hence today's archaeologists rightly believe the cave to hold the key to when and how our species first emerged in North Africa.