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General National Congress (GNC)

المؤتمر الوطني العام


distribution of seats at the GNC
Image source: wikipedia.org

Total seats in the congress: 200 seats:
80 seats for political parties; 120 for individual candidates.




The Opening Ceremony

On the 8th of August 2012 the NTC has officially handed over power to the General National Conference (المؤتمر الوطني العام) -- also known as the General National Congress. From today the GNC is the sole, legitimate representative of the Libyan people. The ceremony took place at Ghabet Alnaser Convention Centre in Tripoli under tight security. The day before the ceremony, the Interior Ministry stepped up security in all the roads parallel and leading to the Rixos hotel. During the ceremony, the chairman of the NTC Mustafa Abdul Jalil was reported to have informed the congress that the NTC has made 'mistakes' and that they were unable to state the law during the transition. He also "urged" the congress to attend to the matters of 'security', 'disarmament', and 'treating the wounded'. It was also reported that the NTC had filed its final report about its operations during the transitional period, which they will hand over to the GNC during the ceremony.



Photo Source: Libya.tv





The President of The General National Congress

The first session of the congress was held on the 9th of August 2012. It was chaired by the oldest member of the conference, Mr. Mohammad Ali Salim (born in 1935, Qasr Alakhyar). In the first voting round, conducted  on the 8th of August 2012, the results were reported as follows:

  • 80 votes: Ali Zidan, an independent candidate
  • 60 votes: Mohammad Yousef Almagarief, the leader of the National Front party - رئيس حزب الجبهة الوطنية للإنقاذ
  • 53 votes: Abdurrahman Asewehli, the leader of the Union for Homeland party - رئيس حزب الإتحاد من أجل الوطن



magarief - Libya's acting head of state

Dr. Mohammad Yousef Almagarief
Libya's acting Head of State
Photo Source: qurynanew.com


After the final round of voting, conducted on the 9th of August 2012, Dr. Almagarief secured a total of 113 votes, and therefore from today Dr. Almagarief is officially Libya’s acting Head of State. It was reported that the extra votes gained by Dr. Almagarief in the second round came from the votes that went to Abdurrahman Asewehli in the previous round. The results of the final round are:

  • Mohammed Yousef Almagarief: 113 votes.
  • Ali Zidan: 85 votes.




First Vice President of the General National Congress

On the 10th of August 2012, members of the conference have voted Mr. Juma'a Ahmed Ateega as the first vice president of the GNC. The full results of the first round are as follows:

  • Juma'a Ahmed Ateega: 75 votes.
  • Saleh Mohammed Almakhzoum: 72 votes.
  • Solaiman Younis Qajem: 37 votes.
  • Senussi  Erhouma Mohammed: 11 votes.

The second round results:

  • Juma'a Ahmed Ateega: 103 votes.
  • Saleh Mohammed Almakhzoum: 93 votes.

first vice president of GNC

First Vice President Juma'a Ahmed Ateega, an independent congressman from Misrata.
Photo source: gnc.gov.ly/




Second Vice President of the General National Congress

On the 10th of August 2012, members of the conference have voted Mr. Saleh Mohammed Almakhzoum as the second vice president of the GNC. The full results are as follows:

  • Saleh Mohammed Almakhzoum: 106 votes.
  • Masoud Abdussalam Abid Attaher: 86 votes.


second vice president

Second Vice President Saleh Mohammed Almakhzoum,
Justice & Construction party, Wadi Eshatti district, Fezzan.
Photo source: gnc.gov.ly/




The Website of the GNC

GNC website

The  Arabic website of the General National Congress (المؤتمر الوطني العام ): gnc.gov.ly/




Nuri AbuSahmain GNC second president

Nuri Ali Abusahmain
The President of GNC (Libya's Acting President)



The President of The General National Congress

On the 25th of June 2013, Mr. Nuri Ali Abusahmain was elected president of the GNC. The previous president, Dr. Mohammad Yousef Almagarief, was forced to resign on the 28th of May 2013 after the passing of the controversial Isolation Law. Mr. Abusahmain represents the Berber town Zuwarah at the General National Congress. Only 184 members (out of 200) took part in the voting. Two "papers" were excluded because of "errors". Abdelmunaim Alwahishi, Benghazi member at the GNC (also a candidate), was reported by LANA to have resigned after the voting had ended, due to his inability to function in a congress dominated by partisan inclinations and lacking transparency and objectivity.


First Round Results:

  • Nuri Abusahmain: 73 votes
  • Sharif Alwafi: 60 votes
  • Fawzi Rajab: 17 votes
  • Abdelmunaim Alwahishi: 10 votes
  • Musa Faraj Saleh: 10 votes
  • Juma Asaeh: 4 votes
  • Muhammed Saad Mazeb: 4 votes
  • Safwan Milad Ali: 2 votes
  • Idris Muhammed Boufaid: 1 vote

Second Round Results:

  • Nuri Abusahmain: 96 votes
  • Sharif Alwafi: 80 votes



Ezzedin Awami
النائب الاول لرئيس المؤتمر

First Vice President Ezzedin Mohammed Younis al-Awami.
Photo source: gnc.gov.ly/

Mr. al-Awami was elected on Sunday the 24th of November 2013 as the second First Vice President of the GNC. The position was vacant for nearly five months, after Mr. Ateega  resigned in July 2013. Mr. al-Awami is an independent congressman from al-Merj, Cyrenaica.





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7/7 Elections


7/7 GNC Party Election Results


Barring Berbers from Party Elections.

The elections were declared a success with 62% turnout, and were completed without any major issues, apart from a number of vandalised election centres, a few violations, and one election helicopter shot down over Benghazi. According to the HNEC the elections were observed by 27,454 observers including 180 international observers, 358 international journalists, 1015 local journalists, 11,344 local observers, and 14,394 observers representing the participating parties and candidates.

Nearly 9 days elapsed since the elections started and still there are no published full results. It was reported that the HNEC is recounting some of the votes from Benghazi, counting ballots from abroad, and looking into a number of appeals filed following the release of the partial results. The partial results have been coming in since the 9th of July 2012, as published at http://www.hnec.ly/modules/results/. In total there are 20 files published including six partial results files, one complete preliminary file, and 13 files listing winners by district. You can download any of these files from the lists of downloads given below.

The "districts" and "individuals" distribution identifies some unexplained violations of the principles outlined by Article (6) of the Constitutional Declaration that resulted in "some" Libyans being deprived from voting for "party-election". There were other violations, listed under the preliminary results including those reported by the Shahed and the Carter Centre.

The following table by Temehu.com summarises only the party-election partial results, followed by the preliminary results table of the 17th of July 2012. The parties are listed by number (the first column on the left), except for the first two. The rest of the names are listed against the corresponding numbers in the second table (see below). The top row shows the areas within each electoral district including sub-districts. Only the top ten parties from each result are shown in the partial results table, accordingly numbered from 1 to 10. For example, the NFA won 1st place in 17 districts; came 4th in Ubari and Misrata; and never made it to the top ten in Wadi Ashati. In total there are 20 districts: 13 main districts and 7 sub districts. 


For information and a list of Libyan political parties please click here.


1- Partial Results

7th of July 2012 election results
Please click here for the full results table

Party Tobruk Qubba Derna Cyrene Bayda Merj Qasr Libya Benghazi Tokra Alabyar Qmines Slouq Ejdabiya Brega/ Jalu-Awjla- Ejkhra/ Tazerbu Kufra Mradah Sedra Sirte Jufra Ubari Murzuq Sabha Wadi Ashati Brak Misrata Zliten Tarhouna Msellata Al-Khoms - Assahel Tripoli: Garaboli Tajura Souq Aljoma' Tripoli Central Tripoli - Hay Alandulus Abu-
Saleem Ainzarta
Janzour Zawya Serman Sabratha Lajilat Zuwarah Ejmiel Regdalin Zilten Almaya Annasiriya Alaziziya Swani Ben Adam Qaser Ben Gheshshir Emsaihel Assayeh Esbia'a
NFA 1 1 1 1 1 4 1 1   4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
J&C 2 2 2 4 4 2 5 3 1 2 2 2 3 2 2 2 2 2 2  
3 3 3   9     7 8       3       5     8 4
4 4 8 3 3   8   7   3 5   5 5   6     10  
5 5 6 5 5           7 4 4 4 6 5 4 6   7 3
6 6 7 6 6 5 6 6     1 6 5 8 7 7   9 4 5 2
7           1                            
8               2                        
9           7 2     10                    
10             3       10     3         6  
11       2     8                          
12                           4 3 3        
13                         2              
14                 2                      
15                 3                      
16                         9 10 9 9 10 5 3  
17                               7 4 3    
18                     3                  
19           3                            
20         3                              
21                                 3      
22         2   9 6   5   8                
23     4                                  
24                 4                      
25 7                                      
26 8                                      
27 9         9 10                          
28 10                     9                
29       7                                
30       8                                
31       10                                
32         6                              
33         7                              
34         8                              
35           10                            
36           5         7       8 10   10    
37             4                         9
38                   6                    
39                   8                    
40                   9                    
41                     8                  
42                       6               5
43                       7                
44                       10                
45                         6              
46                         7              
47     8         4         10 9     7   9  
48                           8 4          
49                             6   5      
51                             10   8      
53                                   6 4  
54                                   7    
55                                       8
56                                   8    
57                                       6
58                                       7
59                                       10
60               5                        
61               9                        
62               10                        
63                 5                      
64   4                                    
65   5                                    
66   9                                    
67   10                                    
68     7                                  
69     9                                  
70     10                 Updated on: 16 July 2012. Temehu.com


The abbreviations used for the areas in the above table refer to the following areas:

  1.   A1: Tobruk Qubba Derna
  2.   A2: Cyrene Bayda Merj Qasr Libya
  3.   A3: Benghazi Tokra Alabyar Qmines Slouq
  4.   A4: Ejdabiya Brega/ Jalu-Awjla-Ejkhra/ Tazerbu Kufra Mradah
  5.   A5:Sedra Sirte Jufra
  6.   A6: Ubari
  7.   A7: Murzuq
  8.   A8: Sabha
  9.   A9: Wadi Ashati Brak
  10. A10: Misrata
  11. A11: Zliten
  12. A12: Tarhouna Msellata Al-Khoms - Assahel
  13. A13: Tripoli: Garaboli Tajura Souq Aljoma'
  14. A14: Tripoli Central
  15. A15: Tripoli - Hay Alandulus
  16. A16: Abu-Saleem Ainzarta
  17. A17: Janzour
  18. A18: Zawya
  19. A19: Serman Sabratha Lajilat Zuwarah Ejmiel Regdalin Zilten
  20. A20: Almaya Annasiriya Alaziziya Swani Ben Adam Qaser Ben Gheshshir Emsaihel Assayeh Esbia'a


Party Names:

Identify the party number in the above table, then locate that number in the following table to identify the name of the party:


Party Name (List Number)

  1. National Forces Alliance: NFA - تحالف القوى الوطنية - Tahalouf Alquwwa Alwathaniya (1)
  2. Justice and Construction: J&C - حزب العدالة والبناء ‎- Hezb Aladala Walbina (2)
  3. National Centrist Party - التيار الوطني الوسطي - Attayyar Alwathani Alwasthi (3)
  4. The National Front Party - الجبهة الوطنية حزب - Hezb Aljabha Alwathaniya (4)
  5. Libya Homeland Party -حزب ليبيا الوطن - Hezb Alwathan(5)
  6. The Union for Homeland -الاتحاد من أجل الوطن - Alittihad Min Ajel Alwathan( 6)
  7. Tajammoua Wadi Alhayat Liddimoqratiya Wattanmiya (7)
  8. Tajammoua Libeek Wathani (8)
  9. Kutlat Alahzab Alwathaniya (9)
  10. Tajammoua Alumma Alwasath (10)
  11. Hezb Alhikmah (11)
  12. Tajammoua Alasala Wattaqaddom (12)
  13. Tajammoua Alasala Wattajdeed (13)
  14. Alwathan Annamae (14)
  15. Arrakiza (15)
  16. Shabab Libya (16)
  17. Tajammoua Alasala Wattanmiya (17)
  18. Attajammoua Alwathani Almostaqil (18)
  19. Hezb Alqaima Allibiyya Lilhouriya Wattanmiya (19)
  20. Tayyar Shabab Alwasath (20)
  21. Muntada Alkudwa Assiyasi (21)
  22. Alwathan Littanmiya Warrafah (22)
  23. Arrisala (23)
  24. Attajamoua Alwathani Biwadi Ashathi (24)
  25. Libya Liljameea' (25)
  26. Assalam Wattanmiya (26)
  27. Kayan Annahdah Wattatweer (27)
  28. Alharaka Alwathaniya Liladala Wattanmiya (28)
  29. Tajammoua Aladala Walislah Wattanmiya (29)
  30. Attajammoua Alwathani Addestori (30)
  31. Tajammoua Attajdeed (31)
  32. Attawasel Alwathani (32)
  33. Attajamoua Alwathani Liashabab (33)
  34. Alirtiqae Wattajdeed (34)
  35. Tajammoua Wadi Arrimal Littanmiya Wattaghyeer (35)
  36. Hezb Attajanoua Alwathani Addimoqrathi Min Ajel Aladala (36)
  37. Hezb Asha'ab (37)
  38. Almoatamer Alwathani Alhurr (38)
  39. Tajammoua Alhimam Allibiyya (39)
  40. Tajammoua Attayyar Alwathani (40)
  41. Tajammoua Libya Alwathan Alwahid(41)
  42. Attaqaddom Min Ajel Libya (42)
  43. Attanmiya Min Ajel Almostaqbil (43)
  44. Attajammoua Alwathani Almostaqil Tarhouna (44)
  45. Hezb Addimoqrati Lidawlet Alqanoun (45)
  46. Tajammoua Alasala Waladala (46)
  47. Hezb Alwathani Allibi (47)
  48. Tajammoua Ittihad Libya (48)
  49. Tajammoua Jabel Nafousa (49)
  50. Alasala Walbina (50)
  51. Hezb Tahalouf Ashabab Addimoqrathi (51)
  52. Libya Alamael (52)
  53. Libya Annajah (53)
  54. Libya Alhadara (54)
  55. Annahda (55)
  56. Alkayan Alwathan Alhuriya Aladal (56)
  57. Hezb Alakha min Ajel Aladala Wattatweer (57)
  58. Jamaiyet Almoaetaner Alwathani (58)
  59. Hezb Attaghyeer Walbina (59)
  60. Tajammoua Alintiqal Min Athawra Ila addawla (60)
  61. Tajammoua Alfadila (61)
  62. Harakat Libya Annahda (62)
  63. Alharaka Alwathaniya Addimoqrathiya (63)
  64. Hezb Arribat Alwathani (64)
  65. Hezb Alijmaa' Alwathani Addimoqrathi (65)
  66. Takattul Tashjeea' Almarea Washabab Min Ajl Sona' Alqarar (66)
  67. Hazb Ala'amel (67)
  68. Attahalouf Alwathani Addimoqrathi (68)
  69. Tajammoua Alwasath Liddimoqrathiya Waladala Walbina (69)
  70. Hezb Addawa Wattanmiya (70)




  • Winner: NFA (National Forces Alliance) - landslide victory, with  an overwhelming margin.

  • Runner-up: J&C (Justice & Construction party) - counting only  the votes gained by both parties in "Tripoli Central" area, the J&C secured 4,774 votes -- just under 9.7% of the votes secured by the NFA: 46,225 votes.

  • Benghazi: the J&C scored a little more votes in Benghazi: 16,143 votes -- around 17% of the votes gained by the NFA in Benghazi: 95,773 votes.

  • Sabha: the NFA also secured the top spot in Sabha, with a majority of 8,712 votes; while the J&C fell to third place (with 2,584 votes). The second place is taken by the National Libeek Gathering (with 3,123 votes).

  • Misrata: the only three districts where the NFA lost the first place is Misrata, Ubari and Wadi Shati. Misrata went for "الاتحاد من أجل الوطن : Alittihad Min Ajel Alwathan: The Union for Homland", with a majority of 24,476 votes.

  • The only two dominant parties for most areas are the NFA and the J&C. Out of the 20 electoral districts and sub-districts included in the above table (based on the results published so far), the NFA won top spot in 17 districts; while the J&C won second place in 13 districts.

  • 3rd Place: the above table shows there are no clear third, fourth or fifth places, as the votes are scattered across a number of parties, each securing one or two places in different areas. The third place is won by the National Front and the National Centrist Party, both of which won 3 third-places each. Overall there are 13 different parties securing just one or two third-place positions.

  • 4th & 5th: the fourth place was taken by 15 different parties, one of which won 4th place in 4 districts. The 5th place was shared by 13 parties, three of which won 5th place in 3 districts.

  • The table of parties disintegrates beyond this point, naturally resulting from the fantastical number of the participating parties, created in the background while Libyans were kept busy shelling each others' homes under the eyes of the law. "Divide and ruin" can only be defeated by unite and rule.

  • The top ten places in all the 20 districts of Libya were shared between 70 parties.

  • The list of participating parties was said to consist of 150 parties. However, the number of political entities registered at the HNEC was said to be 374 political entities.




Electoral Districts:

Partial Results from: www.hnec.ly/modules/results/:

The following file is a compressed folder containing 7 pdf files:





2- Preliminary Results (17/7/2012):


The preliminary results were published by the HNEC on Tuesday the 17th of July 2012, at 21:00 HH (9 pm).


party election results graph

  Parties ('Political Entities': الكيانات السياسية) Percentage Seats
1  National Forces Alliance (تحالف القوى الوطنية) 48.8% 39
2  Justice and Construction (حزب العدالة والبناء) 21.3% 17
3  The National Front Party (حزب الجبھة الوطنية) 3.8% 3
4  Wadi Alhayat Gathering for Democracy & Development
(تجمع وادي الحياة للديمقراطية والتنمية)
2.5% 2
5  The Union for Homeland (الاتحاد من اجل الوطن) 2.5% 2
6  National Centrist Party (التيار الوطني الوسطي) 2.5% 2
   All other parties (آخرون) 18.8% 15
Total:   100.2% 80


Result Errors And Unexplained Violations of the Constitutional Declaration

  • Article (30) of the same CD says the NTC must within 90 days of liberation issue a special law for electing the General National Congress and for appointing the HNEC. But Law 4/2012 was passed on 28th of January 2012. Law 29 itself, regulating 'political parties', was passed on the 2nd of May 2012; but applying for registering political parties was only scheduled to start from the 26th of May 2012. The Constitutional Amendment Number 2 (2012) was passed on the 10th of June 2012; and the Constitutional Amendment Number 3 (2012) was passed on the 5th of July 2012 -- just two days before the election day.

  • The published percentages of the results (in the above chart) add up to 100.2%, even though the PDF file published by the HNEC erroneously shows the total to be 100.0%. This may be considered as a minor error and should be ignored, no doubt, but considering it is to do with "counting" and more so with "counting votes", accuracy is of paramount importance, simply because such errors would naturally shed some doubt over the accuracy of the results overall. 
  • Barring Berbers From Party Elections: only 12 districts out of 13 districts are included in party elections. The excluded district, by mere chance, happened to be "District 8" -- largely dominated by the [persecuted] Berbers of Nafousa Mountain and the Berbers of Ghadames. Why is only one district barred from taking part in party elections? The reason for this democratic violation, according to one analyst from the SOAS, is that the Islamist parties were worried the Berbers would not vote for them and thus would fail to gain the majority they planned to "get" at the GNC. It became clear later that the GNC was indeed dominated by Islamist Parties. Article (6) of the Constitutional Declaration "promises" all Libyans "equal opportunities", and while NTC's Law 14/2012 lists a total of 13 districts in Libya, in reality only 12 districts were allowed to take part in the party-election; thereby depriving Libyan voters from one single district from having equal opportunity to vote for party-elections. The HNEC may have a valid answer for this exclusion, and if so, then the HNEC is urged to explain these anomalies to the Libyan people.


NTC removing boundary 8 from list

This is how numbers run from one to nine: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10.
Ask the NTC for what happened to numeral 8?
This missing district is not Benghazi or Tripoli or Bayda, but the Berber Mountain and other Berber areas.
Click on the image for Law 14/2012.


  • On the other hand, most of the other districts were allowed to vote for both: "parties" and "individuals" --  even though the Shahed report (see below) stated that one of the HNEC staff in Derna had prevented the use of both voting ballots (individuals and parties) and asked voters to use only one of them.

  • The only Libyan website so far to reference the violation of Article (6) is Alwatan (http://www.alwatan-libya.com/more-23036-22-ملاحظات حول الانتخابات الليبية يمكن أن تشكل خروقات انتخابية يجوز الطعن فيها). According to Dr. Abdullah Arrabthi, from the Medicine College at Tripoli University, there are other "breaches" that may warrant the results to be legally challenged against Article (6), such as the election and party laws were not published early enough to allow parties and candidates enough time to make themselves known to the voters. One comment left for Dr. Arrabthi's report stated that Mahmoud Jibril used his photo for the advertising campaign for the NFA even though he is not a candidate, and that many Libyans were puzzled not to find his name in the list of the candidates they voted for; implying that people thought they were voting for Mahmoud Jibril when in fact he is not a candidate.

  • Of course, Article (6) of the Constitutional Declaration violates the Constitutional Declaration itself by declaring all Libyans are "equal" regardless of "language", while at the same time Article (1) declares "Arabic" the only official language in Libya -- even though "Berber" is the native language of Libya and not Arabic. [See the Carter Centre Statement, below, for further violations of the Constitutional Declaration.]

  • According to Mahmoud Jibril, the president of  the NFA, the election law acreed by the NTC is "not democratic" because even though nearly one million voted for the NFA only 39 seats were secured by the NFA at the GNC (out of 200 seats) because the law placed more importance on indivuals rather than parties or coalitions, and therefore, he adds, even though the Libyans blamed the NFA for this failure the real blame lies with the NTC. 


Mahmoud Jibril blames the NTC for the election law which he regards being not democratic. He also questions if future elections could be trusted to be transparent!




  • There were a number of issues and inconsistencies in relation to both the constitutional declaration and the whole electoral system adopted by the NTC. The Carter report recommended that "In future, the election management body should give careful consideration to the protection of minority rights in the voter registration process" [p. 13].
  • Serious violations in Tripoli were reported by "Shahed Network for Election Monitoring" (see  election observers' reports, below): "there were noticeable campaigns inside the polling centre to affect the voters. This contradicts the election Law and procedures and considered as a serious violation of voters’ right to vote freely, therefore, Shahed team call the HNEC to consider all procedures that prevent these abuses."

  • HNEC Staff Violations: the Shahed report reveals more serious violations by officials to influence the voters to favour a particular party in Sbeedat School centre in the "seventh district". Also voters in Shohadaa Alkhaleej School centre were influenced by an "active campaign" for the favour of some [unnamed] party. In one of women's centres in Murzuq the voters were influenced to favour one particular unnamed party. In Khoms (centre No. 1003152) the wrong candidate lists were delivered to the centre; and the voters’ lists from Khoms were mixed with other voters' lists from Meslateh.

  • Special Needs: according to the Shahed Report, 15% of the polling centres were unqualified to receive people with special needs, thereby preventing this category of Libyans from their right to vote. The Shahed report can be downloaded from the website of the HNEC, or by clicking on the link provided at the end of these observations.

  • Appeals: the HNEC in its website (www.hnec.ly/modules/publisher/item.php?itemid=350) announced that voters have two days to lodge any appeals they might have, starting from the date on which the results were released. The results were published on the 17th of July at 9pm (3 hours before the end of the day), but this appeal announcement was published by the HNEC in its website on the 18th of July -- a day after the results were made known. The two days are followed by a total 12 days for the judges to look into the appeals, according to the following process:
    وذكر "العبار" أن هذه الفترة ستستمر لمدة أربعة عشر يوما وقد خُصصت على النحو التالي : يومان للطعن في النتائج الآولية ، ثم يومان للنظر في الطعن من قبل القاضي الجزئي ، ثم خمسة لاستئناف قرار القاضي الجزئي ، ثم خمسة أيام أخر للنظر في الإستئناف من قبل رئيس المحكمة الإبتدائية أو من يفوضه ، وذلك وفقا للقانون رقم أربعة، وأضاف أن بعد إستكمال مرحلة الطعون سيتم الإعلان عن النتائج النهائية والمصادقة عليها ، والتي ستبدأ بها مرحلة انتقال السلطة من المجلس الوطني الإنتقالي المؤقت إلى المؤتمر الوطني العام


Election Observers' Reports

The HNEC's website lists four reports, by the African Union, Shahed Network for Election Monitoring, the Arab league, and the Carter Centre. The Carter report linked to from the website of the HNEC contains hardly any observations, let alone violations, in comparison to the copy found at the website of the Carter Centre itself. In this Carter's report one reads, "Many people who spoke with Carter Center observers expressed excitement at their new ability to speak freely and to discuss politics without fear of intimidation."  The Shahed report was also initially published by the election commission at (http://www.hnec.ly/modules/publisher/item.php?itemid=346), but has since disappeared.

The following observations were extracted from the Shahed and the Carter reports:

(1) - The Shahed Report:

  • "Shahed Network is a domestic election observation initiative. It consists of civil society organizations and individuals in each of the (13) main constituencies in Libya. Shahed is committed to observing the electoral process in accordance with internationally recognized standards of domestic election observation. The network consists of volunteers who plan to be present in as many polling stations as possible. Shahed Network is working with, and supported by NDI."

  • High turnout in Tripoli, Misrata, Benghazi and Sabha.
  • Modest turnout in Albaydaa and Ajdabya.
  • HNEC staff were transparent in their methods and procedures.
  • Up to 96% of the polling stations witnessed the availability of all the necessary materials required.
  • The necessary materials for the election process were not delivered to Khaled Bin Alwaleed School centre in Brega.
  • There are a number of incidents where HNEC staff showed lack of understanding of voting procedures: one of the staff in Darnah area prevented the use of both voting ballots (individuals and parties) and asked voters to use only one of them.
  • Albayda: there has been total chaos due to the absence of the staff responsible for female voters.
  • Ain Zara centre: the wrong voting ballots were delivered to the centre.
  • Khoms (centre No. 1003152): the wrong candidate lists were delivered to the centre; and the  voters’ lists from Khoms were mixed with other voters' lists from Msellatah.

  • Shahed team observed that most of the polling centres were easily reachable with no obstacles.
  • 15% of the polling centres were unqualified to receive people with special needs, preventing this category of Libyans from their right of voting.
  • Delay in opening some polling stations, as in Shohadaa Azzawiah School centre in Benghazi, Awad Abbar School centre, centre No. (40022), Zarqa Alyamamah centre, centre No. (031402), and Ibraheem Gazaari School centre.

  • Most of the polling centres witnessed a good security environment.
  • Major security violations in Albaydaa, Ajdabya and Tobruk:

  • Polling centres were attacked and voting process suspended in many polling centres.
  • Voting materials were stolen in Attaleah School centre; apparent chaos.
  • Voting materials were stolen: the following centres were attacked by armed men who threatened the staff of the HNEC to stop the election process:
  • Annahdah School
  • Independence School
  • Omar Mukhtar School
  • Martyrs of the Damour School
  • Ali Issa School
  • Wehdah School
  • Tarek ibn Ziyad School

  • All the polling centres in Ajdabya were attacked and suffered from "total chaos".
  • Khansaa School centre in Albaydaa: total chaos reported, due to a "brawl in the polling centre".
  • Marej: voting boxes were stolen and the centre was attacked.
  • Ballot boxes were stolen in centre No. (0100741) by a "group of armed men with white guns".
  • Ashbelieh centre in "Gryan": the staff and women voters were attacked: shooting, chaos and stealing ballot boxes.
  • Alquba: Afreeqa centre was attacked by armed men.
  • Ekhlas and Karameh School centre:  ballot boxes were stolen by armed men.

  • Benghazi:
  • Freedom School: explosives (gelatin) were used in the polling centres:
  • Ibraheem Jarari School centre: was completely destroyed.
  • Brigades of Freedom School: attacked by a number of armed men who "detained the staff", with "total chaos" and "shooting inside the centre".
  • Jamal Abdel Nasser School was "burned in Gmenes".

  • Ajdabya-Wehdah centre: ballot boxes were stolen.
  • Ajdabya: Independence School centre: ballot boxes were stolen.
  • Alabyar: the polling centre was burned.
  • Shohadaa Abo Eareeq centre: polling centre was burned.
  • Omar Mukhtar School centre: attacked and the voting process was suspended.

  • Tripoli: Qalaah School centre: the observers and candidates representatives were dismissed by the station director.
  • Tripoli: Halab School centre: there were "noticeable campaigns inside the polling centre to affect the voters. This contradicts the election Law and procedures and considered as a serious violation of voters’ right to vote freely, therefore, Shahed team call the HNEC to consider all procedures that prevent these abuses."


(2) - The Carter Report:

  • "The Carter Center conducted a limited election observation mission, accrediting 45 observers from 21 countries and deploying 16 teams of observers. On election day, observers visited more than 160 polling stations in 11 of 13 electoral districts, including teams in Ajdabiya, Al Bayda, Zuwiya, Gharyan, Khoms, Benghazi, Sebha, Sabrata, Tobruk, Tripoli, and Zuwara."

  • "Carter Center observers were present for the full count at only eight polling stations. This sample is too small to offer a reliable assessment of the counting process."

  • Violations of the Constitutional Declaration: according to the Carter report published at: www.cartercenter.org/resources/pdfs/news/pr/libya-prelim-statement-070912.pdf , "On July 5, 2012, just two days before election day, the NTC issued a third amendment to the interim constitution, this time stating that the election of the constitution drafting body would be carried out through free and direct suffrage, “taking into consideration Libya’s cultural and linguistic diversity.” This change is inconsistent with best practice, which calls for no changes to the legal framework within three months of an election [8]. In this case, the decision may have impaired voters’ ability to understand what they were voting for and thus to make an informed choice."

  • "In future, the election management body should give careful consideration to the protection of minority rights in the voter registration process [p. 13]."

  • NTC's elections law does not include all the provisions governing the electoral process. Many important provisions were left to the executive regulations issued by HNEC over a period of four months and up to seven days before election day.

  • Since the release of the controversial constitutional declaration and the ensued elections and districts laws, the Berbers of Tripolitania (including Nafusa), the Cyrenaicans, and the Libyans of Fezzan were protesting against the electoral system and its multitude of laws and amendments issued by the NTC without consultation with the Libyan people. But no one came to their aid with some "observations".  The Carter Statement says the Electoral System adopted by the NTC, which uses three electoral systems for the GNC elections,  made it more difficult for political entities, candidates, and voters to understand the process; and it also had implications for counting and tabulation. "While elections in general aim to determine the will of the people and to promote their right to select their own government, the specific type of electoral system that is chosen promotes different types of representation and political behavior."

  • There "were isolated incidents of [candidate] posters being defaced or torn down in Benghazi during the last week of June. As the election drew closer, observers noted that posters had been damaged in several other cities, including Zuwarah, Al Bayda, and Derna."

  • "Future electoral management bodies should devote increased resources and efforts to conduct voter information and education campaigns to deepen the voters’ understanding of the process and encourage increased participation in the political process."

  • Several young voters were potentially excluded from the process due to an early cutoff of the registration deadline [25]."

  • The "design of the electoral system and the quota structure does not guarantee gender equity in the congress. The Carter Center strongly urges that measures be implemented to ensure the effective representation of women in any elected assembly in the future [12]."

  • "Although women played a notable role during the uprising, only 585 women registered as candidates. The vast majority of female candidates registered on the PR list. Only 85 women registered as individual candidates."

  • The "brief exhibition period did not adequately allow voters to review the registry and make the necessary corrections."

  • "The HNEC announced the final lists of candidates on June 18, 2012, less than three weeks before election day, leaving a very narrow window for the candidates to campaign."

  • "The election commission did not monitor probable violations of campaign finance regulations during the campaign period . . . "

  • "The Center regrets that only 8,043 overseas voters cast a ballot in these historic elections . . . While geographic considerations were taken into account, there are questions about the choice not to extend OCV to certain countries where large numbers of Libyan nationals reside, such as in Egypt and Tunisia."

  • Not in this report, but in another statement published in its website (www.cartercenter.org/news/pr/libya-071812.html ), the Carter Centre wrote: "First, according to the election law and regulations, both counting and recounting should take place in the district where voting took place . . . While recognizing serious security concerns, the decision to count and recount ballots from Kufra in Tripoli is inconsistent with the law and violates the principle of transparency. Second . . . on several occasions auditors at the tally center appeared to correct calculations or typographical mistakes without the knowledge of polling staff . . . Third, triggers for quarantining questionable results were extremely limited. According to HNEC officials, the database was programmed to quarantine results forms in which the data was inconsistent, the number of votes received by candidates exceeded the number of votes cast, or turnout was greater than 100 percent of registered voters. In the future, the HNEC should consider employing additional and more stringent quarantine triggers, for instance, to detect over 95 percent votes for a one candidate; extremely high turnout in a particular polling station; or discrepancies in the reconciliation of used, unused, spoiled, and cancelled ballots with final vote totals."

  • "On the afternoon of election day, a decision was made by electoral officials in Benghazi to allow registered voters from three polling centers to vote in any polling center in the district.[2] Legally, this decision is contrary to electoral regulations that state that voters are only allowed to vote in the center where they have registered, and that polling staff should not allow anyone whose name is not on the voters' list to vote.[3] The Center acknowledges the extenuating circumstances under which this action was taken. While exceptional, these decisions could have been avoided if the HNEC had adopted an emergency operational plan in advance, rather than taking decisions on a case-by-case basis. In future elections, an emergency operational plan should be developed and widely disseminated to HNEC district offices and polling staff prior to election day." (www.cartercenter.org/news/pr/libya-071812.html)

  • "Five polling centers in Sidra opened only on the following day, July 8, and three polling centers in Kufra and Ribiana opened only on July 10."



Download the full Shahed Report from Temehu.com (written in both Arabic and English)

Download the full Shahed report from Temehu.com

Download the full Carter Centre Libya Statement


Preliminary District Results:

The following file is a compressed folder containing 13 pdf files:



3- Preliminary Complete Results of Winners By District:


A third set of results was published by the HNEC in its website. The results were listed by district. After the appeal process comes to end, the following results will be confirmed by the HNEC, and the NTC will be replaced by the elected General National Congress (http://www.hnec.ly/modules/publisher/item.php?itemid=350).



























Download all the above constituency results
  File size: 70MB











logo of  GNC

Interim Government



GNC Government Number (1)

On the 12th of September 2012 the deputy prime minister of the previous transitional government of the NTC, Mustafa Abushagour (مصطفى أبو شاقور), has been elected by the members of the GNC as the new Prime Minister of Libya. Only 190 members (out of 200) took part in the two voting rounds. The first round was won by Mr. Mahmoud Jibril, the former rebel prime minister of the NTC.


The First Round Results

mahmoud jibril head of NTC's Executive Board
Mahmoud Jibril

  1. Mahmoud Jibril: 86
  2. Mustafa Abushagour: 55
  3. Awad Albarasi: 41
  4. Abdulhamid Alnami: 3
  5. Mohammed Alzway: 2
  6. Mohammed Almufti: 1
  7. Mohammed Berween: 1
  8. Fathi Alakkari: 1


The Second Round Results

Mustafa abushagur
Mustafa Abushagour

  1. Mustafa Abushagour: 96
  2. Mahmoud Jibril: 94

The above figures show that all the votes gained by the Muslim Brotherhood’s candidate Awad Albarasi in the first round went to Mustafa Abushagour in the second round (55+41=96), and the remaining 8 went to Mahmoud Jibril (86+8=94). According to Aljazeera [1], the unity of the two Islamic coalitions (of Abushagour and Albarasi) had helped Abushagour win the second round, and that the two had agreed on certain ministerial posts before the start of the second round.

According to Solidarity Press [2] a number of Libyans from Benghazi gathered outside Tibisti hotel, calling for Jibril to be appointed the Prime Minister; while other sources added that Mahmoud Jibril's coalition had won most of the votes in the 7/7 elections (of 2012) and also most of the votes in the first round of today's voting.

On the other hand many Libyans have already noted that the previous transitional government, in which Abushagour was the Deputy Prime Minister, miserably failed its duty and therefore called for a complete new government to lead out of the imposed quagmire. On the 11th of August 2012 (just 3 days after the hand-over ceremony ) the president Magarief was reported to have said that the new government may including ministers from the previous transitional government -- indicating that the GNC knew from then that some members from the failed government will be in the new one.

15 September 2012:

According to Solidarity Press [3], the spokesperson of the NFA, Mr Tawfeeq Breek, said the alliance will not participate in any way in the next government, headed by Mustafa Abushagour, and that the alliance will not assume any positions or ministerial posts; stressing its rejection of all the decisions that will be issued by the new government; while pointing out that his alliance believes in democracy and respects the will of the members of the GNC, and that the alliance was aware of the agreement on the annexation of votes between the Justice and Construction party and Abushagour when ministerial portfolios were divided secretly between the members of the Justice and Construction party and the GNC members who voted for Abushagour. However, on the 17th of September 2012, New Quryna [4] said that the NFA had denied its refusal to take part in the new government. And according to the NFA's Facebook page [5], the NFA's spokesman denied he said his coalition will "object to all the decisions that will come from the GNC", but to the contrary, he said, they will not be an obstacle to the GNC.

18 September 2012:  according to the head of the NFA's political office, Abdulmajid Mliqta, the NFA will not take any part in Abushagour's government, and that the coalition will assume the position of the "opposition"; while at the same time he said, according to Solidarity Press [6], the coalition will support "any national project", nothing more. Solidarity Press added that the NFA's leader, Mahmoud Jibril, had won the first round for the position of Prime Minister, but lost in the second round.

18 September 2012: in an interview with Alassima [7] Mahmoud Jibril did confirm the above statements, when he elaborated that the coalition agrees with the "national consensus" (التوافق الوطني) that is based on projects and programs for the benefit of the whole nation and not for ministerial gains or power; but there are members within the congress, he added, who said they have no objection to the NFA assuming positions in the government so long as Mahmoud Jibril is excluded. They have presented the program to the Libyan people, he said, and the people voted for it by 933,000 votes out of 1,700,000 people who voted, but what is happening inside the GNC is another story. What matters to them, he confirmed, is their relationship with the Libyan people and accordingly they will support any program designed to serve the Libyan nation.  Regarding the statement made by Zidan in relation to threats received by some members of the GNC and regarding the latest revelation of el-Keib in relation to the mystery "authority that is higher than the Libyan government", he replied saying that one member of the GNC told Mr. Jibril that they received threats from within the GNC stating that they will divide and plunge the country into civil war if they voted for Jibril; and because of this Mahmoud Jibril added that he urges the president Magarief to investigate this dangerous development within the congress that constitutes a serious threat to democracy.

[1] aljazeera.net/news/pages/a4b60cf3-5848-4dbf-89d0-40fde3d880a1
[2] presssolidarity.net/اعتصام-أمام-تبستي-للمطالبة-بتولي-جبري/
[3] presssolidarity.net/بريك-حزب-تحالف-القوى-الوطنية-لن-يشارك-ف/
[4] qurynanew.com/42039
[5] facebook.com/nff.ly
[6] presssolidarity.net/مليقطة-التحالف-لن-يشارك-في-الحكومة-الت/
[7] facebook.com/photo.php?v=416742835041883



04 October 2012:

Mustafa Abushagour Proposes His Cabinet Number (1)

The awaited government was finally announced by the PM on the 4th of October 2012. The government had attracted strong criticism from the Libyan people and from within the GNC. On the following day protesters from Zawiya broke into the GNC and demanded a fair government. However, the GNC had rejected the proposed government, and gave the PM Abushagour until Sunday to come up with an alternative list. Some Libyans have called for the PM to be sacked because he is a holder of an American Passport. The following are the rejected names proposed by the PM:

Prime Minister: Mustafa Abushagour

Deputy Prime Ministers:

  • Omar al-Nakoua
  • Al-Haramain Mohammed al-Haramain
  • Saad al-Aqaibi


  • Foreign Minister: Mustafa Abushagour (temporary)
  • Finance Minister: Abdullah Shamiya
  • Defence Minister: Abdulsalam Jadallah al-Abeidi
  • Interior Minister: Omar Ahmed Alaswad
  • Economy Minister: Mustafa Abufanas
  • Religious Affairs Minister: Salem al-Sheikhi
  • Transport Minister: Abdulhafid al-Abar
  • Education Minister: Sulayman al-Sahli
  • Social Affairs Minister: Summaya Mahmoud 
  • Justice Minister: Yousef Arbish
  • Health Minister: Feisal al-Kreikshi
  • Higher Education Minister: Naim al-Ghariani
  • Communications Minister: Ibrahim Jibril
  • Labour Ministry: Ahmed Safar
  • Oil & Gas Minister: al-Mabrouk Buhroura
  • Martyrs & Missing Persons Ministry: Sami al-Saadi
  • Rehabilitation & Development Ministry: Mustafa al-Saqazli
  • Local Government Ministry: Mohammed al-Harari
  • Industry Ministry: Mahmoud al-Fteisi
  • Youth & Sports Ministry: Ramadan Belhaj
  • Agriculture & Livestock  Ministry: Mahmoud al-Tellisi
  • General Works Minister: Salahadin Shmeila
  • Electricity Minister: Ahmad al-Shaibi
  • Housing & Utilities Ministry: Muftah al-Tayyar
  • Culture Ministry: al-Hadi al-Ghariani
  • Water & Environment Ministry: Mustafa Abdulhadi




07 October 2012:

Mustafa Abushagour Proposes His Cabinet Number (2)

The Prime Minister's second attempt to form a government was more disappointing than the previous attempt. This time his government contained only eleven ministries (including the Foreign Ministry which the PM kept for himself, temporarily), in what he called a "Mini Crisis Government" (حكومة أزمة مصغرة). The PM had informed the GNC that the other missing ministries can function as "boards" or "organisations" under the authority of the Deputy Prime Minister.

The second government was rejected by the GNC, and the hunt for yet another Prime Minister had began. The GNC will discuss tomorrow if the new PM should be s-elected from within the GNC or from outside.

These are the proposed names of the rejected government:

  1. Prime Minister & Foreign Minister (temporary): Mustafa Abushagour
  2. Deputy Prime Minister: Al-Haramain Mohammed al-Haramain
  3. Defence Ministry: Abdulsalam Salheen al-Abeidi
  4. Interior Ministry: Ashour Sulayman Shwayel
  5. Justice & National Reconciliation Ministry: Yousef Omar Khrebeish
  6. Health Ministry: Ibrahim Omran Bhaih
  7. Local Government Ministry: Mohammed al-Hashmi al-Harari
  8. Finance & Economy Ministry: Ali Salem Mohammed al-Hibri
  9. Education Ministry: Sulayman Ali al-Sahly
  10. Housing & General Works Ministry: Salahaldin Nouraldin Shmela
  11. Employment & Human Development Ministry: Ahmed al-Mabrouk Safar





14 October 2012:

GNC Government Number (2)

Ali Zidan

Dr. Ali Zidan (علي زيدان) won the presidency of the GNC during the first round on the 9th of September 2012. Having lost the second round of voting to Dr. Magarief, he has now returned as the transitional Prime Minister, after he was s-elected by the GNC on the 14th of October 2012. Dr. Zidan had won 93 votes, against 85 votes won by Mohammad Harari. The third candidate, Abdulhamid Alna'mi (عبد الحميد النعمي), did not secure the required approval (التزكية) from the GNC; while Ibrahim Addabbashi (إبراهيم الدباشي) was excluded by the Transparency & Nationalism Board. The transitional Prime Minister is expected to announce his first cabinet on Monday the 29th of October 2012.

Ali Zidan Proposes His Cabinet Number (1)

29 October 2012: Solidarity Press said on Monday that the GNC had postponed its "morning session", during which the PM is expected to announce his government (presssolidarity.net/المؤتمر-الوطني-يؤجل-جلسته-المقرر-لعرض/). The announcement is expected to be made during the afternoon session. The afternoon announcement was also postponed, when the GNC announced that the new cabinet will be unveiled on the following day Tuesday. It was reported that the delay was due to the fact that around 28 GNC members are still in Saudi Arabia, eight are in Canada, and 20 were stranded in Benghazi airport.

30 October 2012: Dr. Zidan proposes his government to the GNC. The new cabinet includes 33 names (including that of Dr. Zidan). Only two women are present in the list, namely the minister of tourism, Ikram Abdussalam Imam, and the minister of social affairs, Kamila Khamis Almazini.

The GNC was reported to be considering whether to vote for the whole cabinet or for individual ministers separately, with one source already stating some sort of "opposition" to four ministers. The voting was said will take place this evening. The full list of the new cabinet is as follows:


  1. Prime Minister: Ali Zidan

  2. First Deputy Prime Minister: Assadiq Abdulkarim Abdulrahman Karim
  3. Second Deputy Prime Minister: Awad Ebrik Ibrahim Albarasi
  4. Third Deputy Prime Minister: Abdussalam Mohammad Almahdi Alqadi

  5. Justice Minister: Salah Bashir Abbaj Merghni
  6. International Cooperation Minister: Mohammad Imhammed Abdulaziz
  7. Martyrs & Missing Minister: Sami Mustafa Assaadi
  8. Higher Education Minister: Abdussalam Bashir Addwaybi
  9. Local Government Minister: Abubaker Alhadi Mohammed
  10. Social Affairs Minister: Kamila Khamis Abdullah Almazini
  11. Communications Minister: Osama Abdurraouf Seyala
  12. Defence Minister: Mohammed Mahmoud Alberghthi
  13. Sports & Youth Minister: Abdussalam Abdullah Mohammed Ghwila
  14. Interior Minister: Ashour Suleiman Salih Shuwail
  15. Education Minister: Mohammed Hasen Abubaker
  16. Agriculture Minister: Ahmed Eyyad Ali Alurfi
  17. Foreign Affairs Minister: Ali Suleiman Alawjli
  18. Finance Minister: Alkilani Abdulkarim Alkilani Aljazi
  19. Industry Minister: Suleiman Ali Allathif Alfituri
  20. Tourism Minister: Ikram Abdussalam Bash Imam
  21. Labour & Retraining Minister: Mohammed Alfituri Ahmed Swalim
  22. Transport Minister: Abdulqadir Mohammed Ahmed Alayeb
  23. Economy Minister: Mustafa Mohammed Abufunas
  24. Oil Minister: Abdulbari Ali Alhadi Alarusi
  25. Health Minister: Nureddin Abdulhamid Dughman
  26. Electricity Minister: Ali Mohammed Mhirieq
  27. Water Resources Minister: Alhadi Suleiman Hinshir
  28. Religious Affairs Minister: Abdussalam Mohammed Abusaad
  29. Housing Minister: Ali Hussein Ashsharif
  30. Planning Minister: Mahdi Aththaher Alhadi Ghneyya
  31. Culture Minister: Habib Mohammed Alameen

  32. GNC's Affairs Minister: Muaezz Fathi Alkouja
  33. The Injured's Affairs Minister: Ramadan Ali Mansour Zarmouh


Download the full list of the cabinet and a short biography of each proposed minister from: https://www.temehu.com/GNC/Ali-Zidans-cabinet-30October2012.pdf




The GNC's vote of confidence interrupted by protesters

30 October 2012: according to Solidarity Press , the GNC had granted its vote of confidence for Dr. Ali Zidan's proposed government, with a number of reservations. The reservations were passed by the GNC to the transitional prime minister Ali Zidan and to the Transparency & Nationalism Board. It was reported by Solidarity Press (presssolidarity.net/المؤتمر-يمنح-الثقة-للحكومة-و-يحيل-ملاح/) that the reservations are related to the following ministers:

  1. Religious Affairs minister
  2. Foreign minister
  3. Local Government minister
  4. Interior minister
  5. International Cooperation minister
  6. Agriculture minister
  7. Social Affairs minister
  8. Culture minister
  9. Tourism minister
  10. Finance minister
  11. Higher Education minister
  12. Health minister

While according to the Libyan News Agency (lana-news.ly/ar/art.php?a=26970), the GNC was still discussing its decision regarding four ministers when protestors broke into the building and interrupted the discussion. But in a later statement it said the GNC had postponed its decision as a result of the protest (lana-news.ly/ar/art.php?a=26981). The four ministers in question are:

  1. Foreign minister
  2. Local Government minister
  3. Oil Minister
  4. Social Affairs minister


Protestors Broke Into The GNC Headquarters

Despite the previous attacks on the GNC, and in spite of the importance of security in and around the GNC, the highest authority in Libya, the GNC is still unable to provide basic security to its members. According to Solidarity Press (presssolidarity.net/اقتحام-مقر-المؤتمر-الوطني-احتجاجاً-عل/), a number of protesters broke into the GNC's headquarters, protesting against a number of ministers, especially the Religious Affairs minister. And according to Reuters, "In chaotic televised scenes, congress members negotiated with the protesters . . . to leave. Voting then briefly resumed before being interrupted a second time, leading congress leader Mohammed Magarief to announce the session was postponed to Wednesday" (reuters.com/article/2012/10/30/libya-government-idUSL5E8LU49D20121030).

It is not known why the GNC cannot provide basic security against such attacks on its headquarters, especially during such important sessions! The Libyan News Agency LANA (lana-news.ly/ar/art.php?a=26979) said that the GNC was attacked when its members were still discussing their vote of confidence for a number of ministers, and that Dr. Magarief said that under such conditions the GNC cannot perform its duty. Not being able to secure the whole of Libya may be excused under such imposed circumstances, but not securing the GNC itself is a matter only themselves they have to blame. 


The GNC grants its "conditional" vote of confidence

31 October 2012:

The GNC has voted to approve the government proposed by the transitional Prime Minister Ali Zidan. Only 105 members had voted in favour, with 9 members voting against, 18 abstaining, and 68 members absentees. However the decision was not conclusive, as six of the ministers have been referred to the Integrity Commission because they were too close to the ousted regime. These ministers were reported by Libyan media as follows:

  1. Justice Minister Salah Bashir Abbaj Merghni
  2. Foreign Affairs Minister Ali Suleiman Alawjli
  3. Health Minister Nureddin Abdulhamid Dughman
  4. Religious Affairs Minister Abdussalam Mohammed Abusaad
  5. Interior Minister Ashour Suleiman Salih Shuwail

01 November 2012: according to Solidarity Press (presssolidarity.net/المقريف-حكومة-زيدان-منحت-الثقة-بشرط-تغ/), Ala Magarief, a member of the GNC,  had "hinted"  that the vote of confidence was granted on the condition to change some of the ministers who previously held posts in Gaddafi's government, including:

  1. Foreign Affairs Minister Ali Suleiman Alawjli
  2. Agriculture Minister: Ahmed Eyyad Ali Alurfi
  3. Religious Affairs Minister Abdussalam Mohammed Abusaad
  4. International Cooperation Minister: Mohammad Emhammed Abdulaziz


13 November 2012:

According to the Integrity & Nationalism Commission's decisions 500, 501, 502 and 503 (of 2012), four ministers had failed to pass the integrity enquiry. The commission has passed its decisions to the GNC for consideration, while it said (via its Facebook page) it is still reviewing the files of other ministers. The disapproved ministers are:

  1. GNC's Affairs Minister: Muaezz Fathi Alkouja:  السيد معز الخوجة، وزير الدولة لشؤون المؤتمر الوطني العام
  2. Higher Education Minister: Abdussalam Bashir Addwaybi: السيد عبدالسلام الذويبي، وزير التعليم العالي
  3. Electricity Minister: Ali Mohammed Mhirieq: السيد على محيريق، وزير الكهرباء
  4. Interior Minister: Ashour Suleiman Salih Shuwail: السيد عاشور شوايل، وزير الداخلية


14 November 2012:

Ali Zidan's government sworn in: according to the Prime Minister's Office, only 23 ministers were sworn in before the members of the GNC from a total of 31. Zidan's list contains 32 members (excluding himself), before the resignation of the Martyrs & Missing Minister Sami Mustafa Assaadi, in a protest against Zidan's list which he said has failed to include "revolutionaries".  The missing nine names are as follows (as given by the PMO's website: pm.gov.ly/news/رئيس-وأعضاء-الحكومة-المؤقتة-المنتخبة-يؤدون-اليمين-القانونية.html):

  1. Martyrs & Missing Minister Sami Mustafa Assaadi
  2. Higher Education Minister: Abdussalam Bashir Addwaybi
  3. Religious Affairs Minister: Abdussalam Mohammed Abusaad
  4. Foreign Affairs Minister: Ali Suleiman Alawjli
  5. Agriculture Minister: Ahmed Eyyad Ali Alurfi
  6. Interior Minister: Ashour Suleiman Salih Shuwail
  7. Social Affairs Minister: Kamila Khamis Abdullah Almazini
  8. Electricity Minister: Ali Mohammed Mhirieq
  9. GNC's Affairs Minister: Muaezz Fathi Alkouja




11 March 2014:

Prime Minister Ali Zidan Sacked

Libya's fourth transitional prime minister Ali Zidan has been sacked by the GNC on the 11th of March 2014. It is thought that the sacking was in response to the wide-spread public anger regarding the government's failure to stop the North Korean oil tanker leaving Libyan territorial waters with its illegal oil shipment. It is not understood how the tanker was allowed to enter Libya's waters without permission nor why it was allowed to load hundreds of thousands of oil barrels without being stopped; rising questions as to who really is running eastern Libya: the federalists of Cyrenaica, or Tripoli's helpless ministers. On the previous week the GNC itself was attacked by angry protesters who wreaked havoc in the hall, stabbing and beating GNC members and smashing furniture and equipment. The protesters blame the GNC for Zidan's government's failure. It is not known how or why the GNC is left unprotected since it was elected in July 2012 despite the fact that it was attacked several times since.


11 March 2014:

abdullah athinni

Caretaker Prime Minister Abdullah Athini

The defence minister Abdullah Althni was appointed caretaker prime minister for two weeks. The temporary assignment was later extended for a further two weeks. In his first announcement he made in Ghat, southern Libya, he surprised the Libyans by admitting terrorism does exist in Libya. Many Libyans found the announcement "strange" because everyone knows terrorism has become very popular in Libya. What the new prime minister failed to say is the identity of the mystery terrorists and their foreign backers.

Some Libyans accuse certain parties and blocks within the (hijacked) GNC for the terror activities designed to fail the government, while others blame Gaddafi's loyalists who were encouraged by the West to defect and join the "rebel" movement in Benghazi. Others however blame foreign "gladios" with the intention to fail the government in order to pave the way for further foreign intervention, such as guarding Libya's (made-porous) borders and chasing terrorists into other peaceful states. Also there are those who believe the trouble in Libya can only be blamed on the (hijacked) UN (and its military allies including some Arab dictators) who destroyed Libya's infrastructure and sent the country back to square one without an "exit strategy", and without achieving the protection of civilians they claimed they had in mind. In summary, there can be no solution without identifying the problem; dear prime ministers.



04 May 2014:

abdullah athinni

Libya's Sixth Prime Minister Elected Amidst Controversy

Mr. Ahmed Meitig (أحمد معيتيق) was appointed transitional prime minister in a controversial vote by the GNC on the 4th of May 2014. This is the sixth transitional prime minister the country had since Libya was thrown into turmoil in 2011.

The voting process began last week when two of the seven candidates for the job were elected for the second round of voting. The GNC was unable to reach the legal majority required by the continually-amended CD during the second round of voting, which took place on the 29th of April 2014, apparently due to violence erupting inside the GNC. The voting session was abandoned after armed men stormed the GNC and began shooting in the air, injuring two congressmen (according to another source).

Reportedly, the armed terrorists demanded the GNC to appoint one of the candidates as prime minister, whose name was not revealed even by the spokesman of the GNC, Mr. Hamidan, when he was asked by Libya.tv to name the person in question. The session was closed and the GNC was evacuated, as usual, since both the GNC and the Libyan Government seem reluctant to protect any of the government's buildings, let alone any part of Libya. The gun has been used before to pass laws at the GNC, for example, the controversial Isolation Law (that sent Magarief back to internal exile) was said to have been passed by the gun.

Nonetheless, the second round of voting eventually took place on the 4th of May 2014. The results are as follows:

  • Ahmed Meitig: 73 votes
  • Omar Alhassi: 43 votes
  • Spoilt votes: 36 votes
  • Unaccounted for votes: 48 (probably did not bother to turn up for work).

As none of the candidates were near the required minimum of 120, the GNC decided to give a vote of confidence in favour of Ahmed Meitig, but even this only secured 113 votes - still 7 votes short of the legal requirement.

By now the atmosphere inside the GNC began to show signs of frustration and chaos, leading the First Deputy President of the GNC, Mr. Ezzedin Alawami, to end the session without reaching a final decision, before leaving the congress.

The controversy comes from the next move, initiated by the Second Deputy President, who re-opened the session and decided to continue with the vote of confidence. The first thing they did was to call absent GNC members from their homes (those who did not bother to turn up in the first place, even though they were elected and paid to do so) in order to continue with the vote of confidence. By sheer magic the GNC "declared" that a majority of 121 has been reached and as a result Mr. Ahmed Meitig was declared prime minister (there and then amidst the chaos) and was given two weeks to form his cabinet.


Was Mr. Meitig Elected Illegally?

By the evening,  New Quryna (www.qurynanew.com/60946) reported that the appointment of Mr. Meitig was declared void and illegal by the First Deputy President of the GNC, Mr. Ezzedin Alawami. In a document (apparently) signed by the First Deputy, Mr. Ezzedin instructs the previous prime minister, Mr. Althni, to continue his duties as caretaker prime minister because the number of votes gained by Mr. Meitig, namely 113 votes, is short of the legal requirement of 120 stipulated by the CD.


letter from first deputy of GNC to PM  althinni

Mr. Ezzedin's letter to PM Althni, as published by New Quryna.


However, there is no sign of the above letter at the website of the PMO (as of 6/5/2014), and instead one finds an announcement made by the spokesman of the PMO, stating that the office has not made any official statement regarding today's (4/5/2014) session at the GNC (www.pm.gov.ly/news/بيان-للناطق-الرسمي-للحكومة-المؤقتة-04-05-2014.html). By the following day, the Prime Minister's Office's website (at pm.gov.ly) gives no indication or news of the new prime minister, and in fact the website still shows Mr. Althni as prime minister of the current government. This shows that there is a big disagreement between the GNC and the PMO.

On the other hand, Solidarity Press stated that the Second Deputy President of the GNC, Mr. Makhzoum, said the election of Mr. Meitig is legal, and that the atmosphere inside the GNC was chaotic with GNC members attacking each other (verbally and literally), apparently leading them not to hear the announcement made by the First Deputy President. This may be true, but it does not explain how he (Mr. Makhzoum) did not hear the announcement having been sitting very close to the First Deputy!

Solidarity Press said the new appointment of Mr. Meitig was welcomed by the Muslim Brotherhood party, the Justice and Construction party (حزب العدالة والبناء). In a press conference (two days later) Mr. Meitig reiterated his views by informing the Libyan people that the election of the PM was invalid. The conflicting views therefore are expressive of the charged atmosphere inside the deeply-divided congress while illustrating who is really in charge.

According to Libyan social media, the unknown armed terrorists who attacked the GNC during the earlier voting session (as noted above) demanded one of the two candidates to be elected prime minister, whose name many sources are reluctant to reveal, since liberated Libya is now more dangerous than the ousted dictatorship. An indirect clue however can be found in some of the recent announcements made by the Libyan media.

The problem with the GNC (and the PMO as well) is that they never arrest or publish the names of the terrorists who need to be arrested and who continue to violate Libya's sovereignty almost on daily basis; leading many Libyans to suspect many government institutions' involvement in the orchestrated tragedy; which made Libya, yet again, a new target for the danger it now constitutes to the world's stability, of course.



5 May 2014

The GNC Decrees Mr. Meitig Prime Minister

Despite the controversies outlined above, the GNC has passed a decree to officially appoint Mr. Ahmed Omar Meitig transitional prime minister. According to Decree 38/2014 the transitional prime minister has only fifteen days to assemble his cabinet. The decree was passed on the 5th of May 2014 and effective from the date of publication.

The First Deputy President told Libya.tv he was not consulted about this decree; while according to Libyan media the GNC president has no authority to issue such decree, nor the power to issue any decision at all, as he is authorised only to "sign" decrees and laws once passed by the GNC.

In response to some claims made by some members of the GNC, Mr. Ezzedin Alawami also confirmed that according to Article 7 of the GNC's Internal Regulations he has the full legal authority to announce commencement of sessions and ending of sessions among other duties which he can perform in the absence of the president of the GNC. Moreover, in a press conference a few days later, Mr. Ezzedin Alawami said he was surprised by the president's decision to sign the decree because the president (Mr. Nuri Abusahmain) supposed to be receiving medical treatment abroad, and hence the reason the president did not attend the voting session. It would have been more appropriate, he said, if the president (on his return) met with his two deputies to discuss the matter before making such decision. A few days later, a number of GNC members appeald against the decision.

Download Decree 38/2014 from: https://www.temehu.com/GNC/laws/decree-38-2014-appointing-ahmed-meitig-prime-minister-5-may.pdf



19 May 2014:

Caretaker PM Althni Delivers His Ultimatum

In a 10-point open letter to the GNC the Libyan government (under the care of  PM Althni) called for a second prime ministerial vote and a suspension of the GNC. In its ultimatum the PMO ordered the GNC to pass the 2014 budget and then cease all its functions.

Surprisingly, the Libyan government said the GNC is yet to pass the 2014's budget, despite the fact that nearly half of the year has passed. Solidarity Press reported that Mr. Abdurrahman Ashather ( عبد الرحمن الشاطر ), a GNC member, said that the GNC cannot issue a budget to a failed government that squandered 71 billion dinars without achieving anything, adding that the government had failed to implement Decrees 27 and 53.

However, according to Libya Herald, caretaker Althni had managed to outmanoeuvre the GNC twice; first when "he threatened to resign last month unless given more power", and then when he "refused its request to come up with a new government""Angry at being ignored, Congress then chose Maetig, but in controversial circumstances that are now playing against it" (libyaherald.com/2014/05/19/al-thinni-tells-congress-to-go/).



25 May 2014:

The GNC Grants Vote of Confidence to Meitig's Government

منح المؤتمر الوطني العام الثقة لحكومة احمد عمر معيتيق

The GNC has granted its vote of confidence to Meitig's government. The announcement was made in a session held on the 25th of May 2014. The session was attended by only 93 members (out of 200), with 83 members voting in favour of  Meitig's government.
(واكد مراسل وكالة الانباء الليبية ان 83 عضوا صوتوا لصالح اعطاء الثقة لحكومة معيتيق من اصل 93 عضوا حضروا الاجتماع)
(www.lana-news.ly/ara/news/view/52622/ ( المؤتمر الوطني العام يمنح الثقة لحكومة احمد عمر معيتيق )

The New government of 22 ministers was officially announced via Decree 40 of 2014. A copy of this decree was sent to caretaker Prime Minister Althni, together with an official letter issued by the GNC instructing the PM to handover power to the new prime minister. Althni refused to do so (see below).

The approved government of 22 ministers:

Meitig's government of 22 ministers


Download Decree 40/2014 from: https://www.temehu.com/GNC/laws/decree-40-2014-approving-meitig-government.pdf

The strange thing about the above ministerial list is that it does not include neither a minister of defence nor of oil & gas - the most important ministries of the current period! 




29 May 2014:

Althni Refuses To Handover Power To Illegitimate Meitig's Government

الثني يرفض التسليم لعدم قانونية انتخاب معيتيق 

After receiving orders from the First Deputy President of the GNC instructing him to stay in his position until a new PM is elected, and after it was reported that the Ministry of Justice has declared Meitig's election "illegal", caretaker PM Mr. Abdullah Althni refused to handover power to Meitig's illegitimate government (www.qurynanew.com/61386). Also see the latest announcement by the caretaker Prime Minister regarding the current confusion at: http://www.pm.gov.ly/news/

Apparently the GNC had instructed some of its members to meet with caretaker Prime Minister Abdullah Athini before the approval of the government, to discuss ways of reconciling the "two governments". The meeting took place just before the vote of confidence took place (lana-news.ly/ara/news/view/52620/).




09 June 2014:

Libya's Supreme Court Declares Meitig's Government Unconstitutional

عدم دستورية انتخاب أحمد معيتيق رئيسًا للحكومة

The supreme court of Libya has decided today that the election of   Mr. Ahmed Meitig as a prime minister is not in accordance with the (temporary) Constitutional Declaration, and therefore Decree 38/2014 is deemed unconstitutional. The decision was made after a number of GNC members appealed against the election of Meitig. The court held its first session on Thursday the 5th of May 2014. Today's verdict was welcomed by many Libyans as  a victory against corruption; with some arguing if all other decisions passed after the 7th of February 2014 can also be challenged. The 7th of February is day the life span of the GNC came to an end.



09 June 2014:

abdullah athinni

Current PM: Caretaker Prime Minister Abdullah Athini

Today's decision by Libya's Supreme Court ought to be respected by all Libyans. Both the second deputy president of the GNC and GNC-elected Ahmed Meitig announced their compliance with the ruling. This means that the current prime minister is Mr. Abdullah Althni.



Conclusion: Total Failure:

Immediately after the UN's bombing campaign of Libya came to a sudden end, many local and foreign groups were left to take advantage of the created political vacuum and began forming political parties and even military brigades, while the traumatised Libyan civilians were left blasting each other in the background (without any kind of protection). This seemed bizarre at the time, leading many Libyans to organise the first ever protest against the installed NTC; but unfortunately, the world's media then was too-busy propounding the Libya democratic success, just as they proclaimed the liberation of demolished Iraq ten years earlier. The reports of some NFZ countries arming radical militias in Libya were ignored.

The next step for the installed NTC was to quickly push for the election of the GNC, while barring the Berbers from party elections. The reason for this democratic violation, according to one analyst from the SOAS, is that the Islamist parties were worried the Berbers would not vote for them and thus would fail to gain the majority they planned to "get" at the GNC.

It became clear a few months later that the GNC was widely reported to be dominated by Islamist parties; and even some individual members (independents) of the GNC were later reported to have been secretly allied to Islamist parties. Rather than work together as one united congress, GNC members began forming political blocs within the GNC; the two most powerful of which, according to the Huffington Post, are the "Muslim Brotherhood" and the Islamist "Loyalty to Martyrs" blocs, who went on to dominate the GNC, and, according to the same source [1] and other sources in Libya, even passed the controversial Political Isolation Law by the gun [1].

Thus, contrary to the reports propounded by the world's media (in that unlike Egypt the Libyan 7/7 elections were not dominated by Islamists), the failed GNC was indeed controlled by Islamist parties. [1]: www.huffingtonpost.com/sasha-toperich/libya-the-muslim-brotherhoods-last-stand_b_5618001.html]






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GNC Members (أعضاء المؤتمر الوطني العام)


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GNC News


The End of GNC's Legitimacy

07 February 2014:

no to GNC renewal

The life span of the GNC came to an end on the 7th of February 2014. The GNC came under wide criticism from Libyans all over the country for failing to implement any of the objectives it was elected to supervise. Instead the GNC members agreed among themselves to extend their term in office until the 24th of December 2014. Protesters took to the streets demanding the departure of the GNC, with many Libyans believing the NTC and the GNC were designed to fail, and rightly feared their failure may ultimately drag the country into civil war.

On the 14th of February 2014 General Khalifa Haftar announced what the media called a military coup, even though Haftar himself, according to Solidarity Press, does not consider the announcement  a "coup", but an initiative to "correct" the path of the "revolution". People only need to look at the orchestrated disaster in nearby Egypt to grasp the full implications of correcting revolutions?

According to Alarabiya channel General Haftar had suspended the GNC, the transitional government and the Constitutional Declaration, adding that "his forces" were in Tripoli at the time; but according to prime minister Ali Zidan the revelations are "laughable", with the situation under control - meaning that the country still is plighted with clashes, assassinations and terror atrocities with no authority being able to "protect the civilians" the country was initially destroyed for.

On the following day many demoralised demonstrators took to the streets of devastated Benghazi in support of Haftar's initiative, in which he urged the Libyan people to rally around his call to rescue the country from what he called "the criminals", as he called for activating the army, the police and the judicial system to implement law and order. The GNC shortly afterwards decided to replace itself with an elected body called the House of Representatives (HoR).



GNC President Resigns

28 May 2013:


The full speech (by Libya.tv)


Libya's acting president and head of the Libyan General National Congress, Dr. Mohammad Yousef Almagarief, has announced his resignation on the 28th of May 2013 – just over 9 months after he was elected on the 9th of August 2012. Passing the controversial Isolation Law in its present form - without any amendment or due consideration for such sacrifices endured by the early revolutionaries of Libya - is cruel and plain wrong. The president appeared deeply affected by the current tragedy, but also optimistic Libya will return.

The revolutionary president had resigned because he wanted to be the first to implement the unfair law; just as he was among the first to stand up to Gaddafi's regime some 30 years ago - when Gaddafi demolished his home in Benghazi in 1984. As shown above and elsewhere in this website the president spoke highly of all ethnic and marginalised groups of Libya, as he was the only high official in free Libya, so far, to openly declare his support for the Berbers' constitutional rights!  He has also stressed the need for national reconciliation.

It seems that pressure is mounting beyond expectation, leading to a number of ministers and local council presidents resigning ever since liberation was prematurely celebrated (by some). Brandishing weapons of violence against the law and intimidating officials and assassinating others has nothing to do with revolution. The president said he had "exhausted his energy" to the full; stressing the fact that his voice only counts as "one". In his speech to the members of the GNC, Dr. Magerief started by outlining four issues that require urgent attention in order to steer Libya away from "square one".

The four issues pointed out by the president are summarised as follows:

  1. Legitimacy: the legitimacy of the elected government is the highest authority in Libya and should and ought to have been respected above all.

  2. The Revolution & The Revolutionaries: the president warned that the principles of the revolution may stay the same, but its tools must change in accordance with the goals of the revolution and the legitimate law. Using arms to negotiate or force solutions contradicts the pillars of democracy, he said. He has also noted the most important of all issues currently facing Libya, which is the existence of armed groups operating outside the law, which he has "estimated at tens of thousands". In addition to such groups, the president spoke about other revolutionary groups,  who are among the "true revolutionaries" but somehow declared their allegiance to partisanship instead.

  3. Political Parties & Partisanship: regarding political parties, the president warned that party goals or objectives should not come before the benefit (or interest) of Libya itself. He also noted the need to "politicise" the administration, and protect Libya's robbed funds from being diverted out of the country.

  4. The Media & Its Role: without a doubt, the president said, the media had played an important role during the revolution; but after the revolution had ended some media groups and independents deviated from their course, in the name of free speech, and began their disinformation campaigns to confuse the Libyans and create a state of instability, according to the wishes and the goals of other (unnamed) groups; leading to many Libyans, the president said, to withdraw themselves away from the political dialogue taking place.

Following these issues, the president had some recommendations to the current transitional government of Prime Minister Ali Zidan, including:

  1. The government needs to acknowledge that its mission is temporary.
  2. Implement Security.
  3. Control the arms circulating in Libya.
  4. Improve the standard of living, especially of the poor.
  5. Youth education and training and facilitating marriage.
  6. Develop women's rights and issues to the best.
  7. Tackle drugs.
  8. Put a stop to health deterioration and environmental degradation.
  9. Fight financial corruption and its associated issues, which he says are infesting the society from within.
  10. Administration improvements.
  11. National Reconciliation, which he says is the most important issue the Libyans and the government need to address to steer away from "square one".
  12. He also advised people to think before "acting", and make sure they do not end up "pawns" on others' chessboard.


GNC Approves The "Political & Administrative Isolation Law"

05 May 2013:

The GNC had finally approved the long-awaited isolation law on Sunday the 5th of May, with 164 members in favour, 4 abstentions, and 19 absentees (6 of whom had provided the reason for not attending). The approved law was titled: Law 13 of 2013 Regarding The Political & Administrative Isolation. The copy of the law provided by the GNC in its website was dated to the 8th of May 2013. The law will become effective after 30 days from publication date (8/5/2013).
Source: gnc.gov.ly/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=425:2013-05-05-21-57-36&catid=1:2012-08-09-13-20-21&Itemid=12 .

pdf sign
Download the official Political Isolation Law from here: https://www.temehu.com/GNC/political-isolation-law-13-2013-gnc.pdf

Was Law 13 Passed By The Gun?

Law 13 had attracted wide criticism from various sources including from some GNC members. For example, Ala Magarief, a GNC member, told Solidarity Press that the law is unfair to many Libyans who campaigned against Gaddafi's regime for over 30 years. Solidarity Press said the Second Deputy President of the GNC said the law will not isolate those "old" Libyan opposition figures nor those who had defected to join the people against Gaddafi. On the other hand, most analysts say many members of the elected Libyan congress, ministers, party leaders, and employees of the various departments of the transitional government will have to go, as a result of Law 13.

Many critics, revolutionaries and federalists from Benghazi said the law was approved by "the gun", in reference to the previous breaches of security at, and the attacks on, the GNC and other government institutions by mystery armed groups, the identity of whom is not known, and whom government officials once again failed to name. New Quryna [qurynanew.com/52173] reported that the CTC (the newly self-declared federal region in Cyrenaica) will reject any law passed by the "gun".

The fact that the GNC took a long time to study, discuss and draft the final copy of the law, only to approved it as it is,  without any modifications, is "conspicuous", some say. The creation of hundreds of political parties and the quickly-effected 7/7 elections, while most Libyans were left  shelling each other's homes, is also conspicuous. Why leave such important government buildings unprotected and prone to humiliation and gunfire, and even occupy the GNC for a whole month? Unable to provide security for the whole of Libya is a bigger consequence, no doubt, but not providing security for the GNC itself is "quite an event".

Was Law 13 Tampered-With After It Was Passed By The GNC?

On Sunday the 19th of May 2013, the NFA announced that the law voted for by the GNC members was different from the law that was passed afterwards, and that 18 Articles of the released document were "forged" or changed after the law was voted for. The NFA released some details regarding these changes, and were published in their facebook page:

The NFA also called for an "investigation" into the changes added or omitted from the draft Isolation law after it was voted for by the GNC, and said it will take legal action if the GNC does not clarify the issue within 48 hours:



GNC Members & President Attacked

05 March 2013:

GNC members, temporarily meeting at the meteorological institute in the capital, were surrounded by around 600 armed protesters and held hostage for long hours, in an attempt to force the GNC to vote over, and possibly pass, the "isolation law". Juma Sayah, an independent GNC member from Nasiriyah, was reportedly hit on the head as he attempted to escape (Libya Herald, article: /2013/03/06/gnc-members-held-hostage-by-armed-demonstrators-one-member-hit-on-the-head/). The armoured vehicle, carrying the Head of the General National Congress out of the institute, was also attacked and, according to Libya Herald, "came under a fusillade of gunfire from both sides as well as head on" (Libya Herald, article: /2013/03/06/magariefs-vehicle-swap-at-gnc-backfired/). Although the tyres of the bullet-riddled vehicle were shredded by gunfire, the president's driver was reported to have kept the Toyota moving and managed to lead the president to "safety" (in Free Libya). For a photo of the damaged vehicle, see (guardian.co.uk/world/2013/mar/07/libyan-national-congress-rogue-militias). Like many other reports, the attackers are most often "unknown", and the president's guards were said to have failed to return fire; leaving the Libyans once more to conjure unconventional explanations, rejected by the ruling party as no more than conspiracy or fitna. The head of the GNC said, according to Libya TV, that a senior member of the GNC had put a gun to his head (or his face) during the latest attack at the meteorological institute, without naming the offender. While according to LANA the head of the GNC said, had it not been for divine intervention and the members' self-control, the GNC meeting would have turned to a blood bath (lana-news.ly/ara/news/view/16311/).



GNC Vacated of Protesters

02 March 2013:

On 5th of February 2013 protesters forcibly made their way through congress security and occupied the GNC. One month later, the protesters still inside the GNC, with the government saying it has no authority or power to protect Libya's most important building – the seat of Libya's sovereignty. However, the protesters were reported to have been evicted on the 2nd of March 2013, in an operation that has left three security officers injured. Officials say their security personnel were fired-at despite them not using any force during the operation. This the GNC said had resulted in withdrawing their personnel to outside the General National Congress for safety reasons and to avoid bloodshed; while leaving the armed protesters inside the building:

It was not until the 5th of March 2013 that the GNC was finally vacated. The eviction operation does not appear to have gone according to plan, as Tripoli's Security Manager, Col. Mahmoud Asharif,  told reporters that three security officers were injured, and that it was the protesters who started throwing the contents of the hall at the security forces, before it developed to one firing his pistol and throwing gelatin-made grenade. The security manager continues (according to LANA) that the operation details appear to have been leaked, as this incident was followed by an another armed-group storming the hall and shooting at government security forces, leading to the reported injuries (including one seriously injured). Despite all this, the Security Manager said the the government refused to use force to evacuate the congress; without saying how the armed group was dealt with or how the shooting came to an end.


The President of The GNC's Assassination Attempt

03/04/05 January 2013:

Sabha: according to Libya For The Free, Dr. Magarief has escaped an assassination attempt on Saturday. Dr. Magarief told reporters that armed men had attacked the hotel he was staying in, in Sabha, and that the firing lasted for three hours, in which 3 of his bodyguards were injured (libya.tv/en/magarief-assassination-attempt-fails-in-sabha/). According to Reuters, Dr. Magarief's residence in Sabha "came under gunfire on Thursday evening" (reuters.com/article/2013/01/06/us-libya-parliament-attack-idUSBRE90507U20130106). While according to Libya Herald, the Defence Ministry's spokesperson, Colonel Adel Albarasi, believes the shooting did not target Dr. Magarief, but was an armed clash between two local tribes (Libya Herald, article: /2013/01/06/reports-emerge-of-magarief-assassination-attempt-in-sebha/). Sabha was in fact suffering from violent clashes between a number of tribes at the time of the president's visit.

The reports provided above do not seem to agree on the day the assassination attempt supposedly to have taken place: Reuters said "Thursday", Wikipedia thinks it was "Friday", and Libya TV said "Saturday". Solidarity Press however, who also said "Friday", had reported the incident rather differently: it said that Fezzan Hotel came under a "random shooting" by unknown assailants, and that two "commandos" (قوات الصاعقة) died in the attack. It also said that the president of the GNC was said to have been staying at the hotel at the time of the random shooting (presssolidarity.net/مصدر-أمني-فندق-الفزان-يتعرض-لإطلاق-الن/).  Shortly afterwards, the GNC agreed to establish a Special Security Force to protect the GNC and its members.



Transitional Prime Minister reveals a "power that is higher than the Government" of Libya, but refuses to name



Speaking to the newly-elected members of the GNC regarding defence matters, the PM said there is "a higher authority" that had prevented his government from implementing some of their "decisions".

When he attempted to continue, the President of Libya, Dr. Magarief, asked him: "who is this power?"

The PM pushed the microphone away,
then turned towards the microphone and said: "a power that is higher than the government".

From the principle of "transparency" the President of Libya politely requested from him, again, to name this "authority": "please name this power". But the PM dismissed the President's request by repeating: "it is the power that is higher than the government".
The President kindly replied: "thayeb" ('Okay')!



Libya's Acting President Keeps Same Distance From All Parties

11 August 2012:

The president of the GNC has suggested that the proceedings of the GNC should be transmitted live. In a gesture to exercise authority and keep the house united, the president promised he would keep the same distance from all parties; and that he will stay away from all "political", "regional" and "tribal" considerations. The president has called for "dialogue" with all the political forces and civil society components including those not represented in the General National Congress. What is important is to improve consultation and exchange of opinion to reach the shared beliefs that serve the best interests of the nation, the president said. He was also reported to have said that the new government may including ministers from the previous transitional government.



The GNC Suspends Its Sessions Until The 23rd of August 2012

10 August 2012:

  • The conference has decided to postpone the selection of the General National Secretary and the Spokesman for the GNC until the release of the internal regulatory laws of the conference.
  • The National Congress has selected  a committee to develop an internal list to organise the sessions and the work of the GNC.
  • The National Congress has decided to suspend its work until the twenty-third of August 2012.



Qanat Libya Alwathaniya

25 August 2012:

The GNC has decided on the 25th of August that "Libya Alwathaniya" (National Libya) will be the official channel chosen to transmit live proceedings of the GNC.
  قرر المؤتمر الوطني العام أن تكون قناة ( ليبيا الوطنية ) الناقل الرسمي والحصري " نقلاً مياشر اً " لجلسات المؤتمر




The GNC Condemns The Attacks on Libya's Heritage

26 August 2012:

The GNC condemned the attacks on the shrines and mosques of Zliten and Tripoli; and recalled the ministers of Defence and Interior for questioning over the way they handled the desecration of the mosques. The Interior Minister Fawzi Abdela'al resigned on the 26th of August, but later he withdrew his resignation request.

Media reports say the attacks were said to have been authorised by the Ministry of Interior, and that security officials and police stood watching and even blocked the roads while the bulldozer was demolishing the mosque in Tripoli. Dr. Mohammad Yousef Almagarief, said that those responsible “are unfortunately aligned with some in the Supreme Security Committee and some ex-revolutionaries” (Libya Herald, article: /?p=13237).   Please click here to download the statement of the GNC.

During the rule of the NTC, the council was "urging" people to respect the law. This appears to have evolved to become "condemn" during the transitional rule of the GNC, as respect of the law is now well beyond. The elected government appears to have been resigned to watch destruction and terror events establish foothold.



Libya's Acting President acknowledges the Berbers and their prominent personalities and martyrs


magarief wearing the berber flag

The President of Libya wearing Tamazight flag.
Photo source: facebook.com/LibyanAmazigh101


There is no difference between the Imazighen and the Arabs, or between the Tuareg and the Tebu, the president noted. In his call for unity, the honourable president invited all Libyans to remember the injustices we all endured under the previous, oppressive regime; and as one "united family" the president calls for all Berbers, Tebu and Arabs to get to know each other, away from separatism, regionalism and tribalism. However, despite the claims perpetuated by the media and by some Libyan officials and many Libyans, the Berbers have no separatist or tribal tendencies, as their demands are mainly equal constitutional rights on the basis of being Libyans; in as much as federalism (or regionalism) does not mean 'dividing the country', since Cyrenaicans' demands are mainly related to equal share of power under the central Authority of United Libya.





logo of  GNC




Isolation Law

06 March 2013:

A day after the GNC was vacated of the war amputees, a decision was made by the GNC to meet at the Meteorological Institute in Crimea district, Tripoli. Like before, the GNC seems to have no security to protect its congress and members, despite the formation of a special security force to protect the GNC. Expectedly, the meeting at the meteorological institute was attacked by a group of armed protesters, around 600 of them, holding the GNC members "hostages" inside the institute, until they vote on the isolation law, reporters said (Libya Herald, article: /2013/03/06/magariefs-vehicle-swap-at-gnc-backfired/ ;
Libya Herald, article: /2013/03/06/gnc-members-held-hostage-by-armed-demonstrators-one-member-hit-on-the-head/

Many Libyans say the GNC appears reluctant to pass the law. The evidence for this, the Libyans say, is that protesters are repeatedly allowed easy access, without any kind of resistance, to break into such important buildings like the GNC - the seat of the elected government. In fact on the same day the GNC was vacated, the Prime Minister's Office was occupied by another group of protesters.

Many officials say the isolation law needs to be re-drafted to exempt all those who did not committ any wrong doing when Gaddafi was in charge, as well as those who defected during the early weeks of the uprising. Any one defected after the bombs fell, some say, must be isolated and prevented from taking part in the new government. Others however say only those who built the courage to abandon Gaddafi's regime while Gaddafi was still in power, like Dr. Magarief for example, should be exempted. 

Segregating Libyans into two groups, such as "revolutionaries" and "loyalists", is a dangerous trend Libya should avoid at all costs, and instead the Libyans need to learn to live as one people before the same law. Anyone committed any crimes against the Libyans during Gaddafi's government or now or at any other time must be faced with the evidence before the court of law in a civilised manner. All militias (official and otherwise) should be disbanded and replaced by "one unified army". The longer this continues, the Libyans say, the more difficult it becomes for Libya to be saved.



Was The President of The GNC Legally Voted?

30 August 2012:

According to (alwatan-libya.com/more-23797-1-جبريل:), Mahmoud Jibril had said on Thursday (30th of August 2012) that the GNC had acted against the regulations stipulated by the Constitutional Declaration (CD) regarding the election of the president of the GNC because the second round of voting violates the CD, which stated that the election of the president should be completed in one session:

وإتهم جبريل المؤتمر الوطنى بمخالفة الاعلان الدستوري بشأن اختيار رئيس المؤتمر قائلا الجولة الثانية لإنتخاب رئيس المؤتمر الوطنى كان مخالفا للاعلان الدستورى لأن الإعلان الدستورى ينص على ان تكون جلسة واحد للإنتخاب والفائز بأكبر عدد من المقاعد هو من يتولى رئاسة المؤتمر

To follow Jibril's statement, one must refer to the CD for confirmation:


constitutional Declaration

Article (30), Constitutional Declaration, 03 August 2011.

What it says in English is that: the NTC will be dissolved in the first session of the general national congress (or conference), and the oldest member shall assume the presidency of the session, and its youngest member the secretary of the session. During this session the president and the vice-presidents of the general national congress will be elected via secret balloting by relative majority; and the transitional government shall continue to run its affairs until the formation of a temporary [or interim] government. 

However the Constitutional Amendment (1) of Year 2012 to Article (30) of the CD, published on the 13th of March 2012, has removed the phrase "relative majority", and instead added a new line to the end of the above paragraph, as follows:


constitutional Declaration

Constitutional Amendment (1)  of Article (30), published on the 13th of March 2012.

The new added sentence states that "And in all cases all decisions shall be taken by a majority of two-thirds". This means that conducting a second round of voting during the second session of the congress does seem to violate both the Constitutional Declaration and its First Amendment. The obvious reason for this may well be the fact that no two-thirds majority was reached in the first round (since Ali Zidan secured only 80 seats out of 200), and thus Reuters reported that: "Voting went to a second round after no one managed to win an outright majority in the first" (reuters.com/article/2012/08/10/libya-assembly-idUSL6E8J9IGA20120810).

But this is inaccurate, since the phrase "outright majority" is not what the CD's amendment says. The CD Amendment (1) says: "and in all cases all decisions shall be taken by a majority of two-thirds"; which means that no one had reached the two-thirds majority in neither rounds. Two-thirds of 200 is 133, which is more than what the president had achieved in the second round, namely 113 votes, and therefore both rounds are short of the legal requirement according to the first amendment of the CD.

It was reported that the extra votes gained by Dr. Almagarief in the second round came from the votes that went to Abdurrahman Asewehli in the previous round, and therefore ending the session before electing the president may have allowed the time for the two parties to negotiate joining forces against the Independent Ali Zidan.

On the following day, that is on the 31st of August 2012, Solidarity Press announced that according to a source from the GNC the congress had amended Article (30) of the Constitutional Declaration so that the congress' legislations will be approved by a majority of 120 members:

قال مصدر مطلع من المؤتمر الوطني أن المؤتمر أجرى تعديلا على المادة 30 من الإعلان الدستوري يقضي بأن تشريعات المؤتمر الوطني العام تصدر بأغلبية 120 عضوا



GNC Members

The GNC's website does not have a list of the 120 independent members. Four months later and still there is no sign of the list. The website however does have a link to a "members" webpage, but clicking on the link returns the visitor to the home page instead: gnc.gov.ly/en/. The NTC had a similar issue in the past. A year later, many Libyans and Libyan news agencies began openly to speak of many GNC members turning out to be undercover party members.

As of September 2012, the website of the NFA (nff.ly/Tahalof_AboutUs.aspx) still does not list the parties allegedly forming the NFA itself. Mahmoud Jibril's followers at Facebook asked about the list, but apparently a technical glitch in the database was to blame. In their "About Us" webpage, the coalition said:

الأحزاب والمنظمات والتيارات والجمعيات والشّخصيات الموقّعة على هذا الميثاق
: 'the parties, organisations, movements, associations and the dignitaries that signed this charter',

but clicking on the link to the charter, one does not find a single signature. Wikipedia says the coalition "includes 58 political organizations", 236 NGOs, and more than "280 independents", without naming a single one. When clicking on the reference provided by Wikipedia (for its source), the reader is transported to a page that now automatically redirects to Libya Herald's home page. The whole point of a website is to provide information about the coalition which the Libyans voted for, seemingly without knowing anything about the members of the coalition. 



Who is running Libya? The Government or the criminals?

27 August 2012:

Protestors met outside the headquarters of the GNC in the capital Tripoli, condemning the recent explosion of violence and terror activities in free Libya, the use of force to manipulate political objectives, and the vandalism of Libya's heritage; as well as demanding urgent action from the elected government of Libya to protect the Libyans and Libya's heritage.

Among the protestors were representatives from various organisations including the LFJL, which noted that the recent attacks in Derna, Misrata, Zliten and Tripoli "underline the importance of guaranteeing freedom of religion and expression in the new Libya, and the protection of its heritage and its historical sites" (libyanjustice.org/news/news/post/36-lfjl-strongly-condemns-recent-attacks-of-religious-shrines-in-libya-/).

In a letter to the GNC, signed by over 10 civil society organisations including LFJL, they wrote: “This is the moment for the GNC to define itself and its authority. No action will mean that the power in the country is not with our democratically elected representatives but with unknown forces." The Prime Minister el-Keib did in in fact confirm to the GNC the existence of an authority higher than his government (see GNC News link, above)!

The following is a summary of the demands listed in the letter:

  • Implementing immediate security at the damaged sites and in all remaining vulnerable sites in Libya.
  • Protection of Libyans seeking to protest and express their legal right to demonstrate.
  • Issue a public statement condemning the criminal attacks.
  • Ensure the protection of those seeking to report the events in Libya.
  • Investigate officials responsible for security and protection of sites.
  • Ensure that there is an investigation into the perpetrators and bring them to justice.
    Please click here to download the full letter


The Letter of The President of The Amazigh World Congress To The GNC

11 August 2012:

A W C world amazigh congress

The president of the World Amazigh Congress, Fathi N Khlifa, wrote a letter to the president of the Libyan General National Congress regarding the human rights violation committed by a member of the Libyan embassy in America against the Libyan citizen Mohammed Albakkoush and his sons: Aksel and Massinissa. Apparently the embassy refused to issue Libyan passports for his sons because they do not carry Arab names. Both Aksel and Massinessa are Tamazight names, previously banned by Gaddafi's regime. The ban on Berber names was lifted a number of times during the last decade, but now it seems the ban is still effective. Will the GNC issue a law informing the Libyans that the Berbers can and have the right to name their children with Tamazight names?


Women's Liberty at the General National Congress

09 August 2012:

Sarah Elmesallati
Photo source: qurynanew.com/40025

The GNC began with a small incident, when Sarah Elmesallati, the young lady who was presenting the event, was ordered by one of the congressmen to cover her head. She ignored his order and continued to perform her duty. In a statement to Libya Herald, Sarah Elmesallati said: “After that, an assistant of Jalil came up to me and said ‘please, I’m asking you as a daughter, can you please stop’. I begged him to let me continue, but when I walked back on stage, Jalil caught my eye, pointed at me, and signalled for me to go away, so I did”.

In an indirect statement, the chairman of the NTC said individuals' freedom is respected in Libya, but the Libyans need to understand that Libya is a Muslim country. One member of the HNEC told reporters that women can choose not to wear the headscarf if they choose to - an opinion shared by most Libyans. New Quryna said Sarah Elmesallati was in tears after she left the [free] stage (أنا كنت أبكي وراء المسرح لأن الموقف كان صعبا للغاية).

Libya Herald, article: /?p=12444