Tamazight  Education & Online Resources


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The Berber department at the University of Tizi-Ouzou was created in 1980. The Amazigh Language and Culture Department was created in Tizi-Ouzou on the eve of January 25, 1990. The goal of this institution was to set up a Master level graduate program in Berber language. A decade after the events of spring 1980, the Algerian Higher Education Ministry had finally accepted the presence of Berber (cf. Chaker 1989/90, chap. 9). One year later (October 1991), a second Berber department was created in Bougie. Since their creation, Berberists say, the two departments have been operating under very difficult conditions.

In 1994 the Algerian authorities began to consider the introduction of Tamazight in Algerian schools, due to improvements in relations between the government and its Berber allies. In 1995, the Algerian president L. Zeroual established an agency to introduce Tamazight in education, leading to "pilot programs" being started in 16 provinces (out of a total of 48). At the beginning of the 1996 academic year, a decision from the Ministry of Higher Education imposed the establishment of a licence degree in Berber Language and Culture in the two Berber departments. And after the foundation of the HCA in Algeria in 1996, several initiatives were made in favour of teaching Berber in secondary schools; training courses for teachers were organised; and Berber courses were started in several schools.

The Canadian Ministry of Education in Ontario had officially recognised Tamazight language and integrated it within its Program of International languages in Ontario in 2001; followed by the Catalonian parliament adopting resolution (1197/VI) in support of the "Amazigh language" and the introduction of Tamazight at the university level in 2002. Even though the Moroccan government did promise the Berbers the freedom to use their language in education way back in 1994, it was not until the 15th of September 2003 that Berber language was officially introduced in 317 primary schools across Morocco -- with the aim of extending the scheme to all the schools in the country by 2013.Also historic, the Tuareg's school at Djebok, forty kilometres east of Gao; and the primary-secondary school at Imbassassoutene, south of Timbuktu, which through its six classes teaches in Tamazight those between the ages of six and eighteen.

After the February 2011 uprising in Libya, the Berbers of Nafousa Mountain established their own school classes, in which Berber students were taught using Tifinagh. A year after the liberation of Libya, Berber schools were established in most Berber areas in Libya. Between the 10th and the 13th of November 2012 Berber books to teach Tamazight language and the Tifinagh script were distributed to schools in Nalut, Kabaw, Thimzin, Jado, Yefren and Zuwarah. The manager of Nalut's Education Office told LANA that teaching Tamazight will be introduced to years one, two and three of the "primary education" (lana-news.ly/ar/art.php?a=27976).

Only with constitutional protection and government funding that Tamazight can flourish and begin the Berber revolution against ignorance and tyranny. The only country in North Africa to recognise "Tamazight" constitutionally is Morocco, but the announcement  seems to coincide with the 2011 popularised uprisings, and hence critics still say nothing in practice has so far materialised from such "constitutionalisation". 

Berberists need to be aware of the hasty approach to implementing systems without proper foundation, research and dialogue; and of the possibility of others hijacking such means to effect other preconceived objectives. Will Berber education be free from any restrictions introduced in the name of "moderation" and other political and/or religious limitations? Will Berber education be scientific?




Berber language is now being taught at primary schools for year one, two and three in all Tamazight-speaking areas in Libya.



zuwarah university

Tamazight Language is now being taught in Zuwarah's Literature Faculty, Zuwarah University (part of Zawiya University). This is the first time in Libya that Berber language (or Tamazight) is being taught in Libyan university. The opening ceremony was held on the 29th of July 2015.




Universities, Schools, Courses


  • Universite Mouloud Mammeri, Tizi Ouzou, Algeria: contact Tamazight Language Department.

  • Le Centre De Recherche Berbere De l'Inalco (CRB): postal address: 2, rue de Lille, 75343 Paris. Cedex 07. Address: 49bis, avenue de la Belle Gabrielle, 75012 Paris. Website: centrederechercheberbere.fr

  • Universite de Bejaia, Department of Tamazight Language & Culture.

  • Imazighene (Paris), de I'Academie  Agraw Imazighene, 37 bis, rue, des Marronites, 75020  Paris. 

  • Institut National des Langues et Civilisations Orientales, 2, Rue de Lille, 75007  Paris.

  • Mande Bukari University, P. O. Box 3041 Bamako, Mali.

  • Ibn Zohr University, Agadir, Morocco: Amazigh Culture Studies.

  • SOAS: Schools of Oriental And African Studies, London UK.

  • The British Library: bl.uk), London, UK.

  • Leiden University, Holland: Prof. Harry Stroomer, P.O. Box 9515, 2300 RA Leiden. Mena Lafkioui, m.lafkioui@let.leidenuniv.nl (Tarifit dialect), Tashelh’it (Tachelhit) and other Berber dialects: Prof. Dr. Harry Stroomer (Berber Languages).

  • Academic Institutions in the Netherlands, research & teaching Tamazigh in the Netherlands:

  • University of Leiden
  • University of Tilburg
  • University of Utrecht
  • University of Nijmegen
  • University of Cadiz, Spain, courses in Tamazight.

  • Universite Paris III    Sorbonne Nouvelle  (Centre Censier), 13, rue  Santeuil,   75005  Paris. Groupe D'etudes Berberes - Universite Paris III, 2, rue de la Liberte, 93526  Saint-Denis cedex 02.
  • University of Michigan:

    • 1)- Course In Spoken Tamazight (Ayt Ayache and Ayt Seghrouchen dialects, Middle Atlas).
    • 2)- Reference Grammar of Tamazight Language.
    • 3)- Comuterised Lexicon of the Tamazight Language.
  • Ottawa, Canada: ACAOH (Amazigh Cultural Association in Ottawa-Hull) reported that Tamazight classes are to resume in September 2002, every Saturday. They also reported that Ottawa approved the introduction of Tamazight “in primary and high school classes on demand.”

  • IRCAM: The Royal Institute for Amazigh Culture: Centre des affaires (Aile Sud), Avenue Riad, BP 2055 Hay Riad Rabat, Tel: 037-71-78-83, 037-71-77-84/85, fax: 037-71-49-63, ircam.ma: the web site of Morocco’s  Royal Institute for Amazigh Culture: download Tamazight keyboard for Windows and Mac based systems.



Journals, Periodicals, Encyclopedias & Research Links

  • Le Journal Officiel du Gouvernement provisoire kabyle:

  • Berber Encyclopedia: Encyclopédie Berbère.

  • The Journal Of North African Studies (JNAS), published in Summer, Autumn and Winter by Frank Cass And Company Limited, Newbury House, 900 Eastern Avenue, London IG2 7HH, England. The Centre for North African Studies was founded in 1995 as an independent charity; it organises lectures and forums on N. African affairs, and sponsors research.

  • Libya Antiqua:  a periodical of the Libyan Department of Antiquities. The Robinson Library has most of the first series (1960 – 1980), while the SOAS Library, [L UVL913.3974 330838; and Per 107L 246711],  holds Vol.1-16 (1964-1979); New Series Vol. 1, 2, 3 (1995, 96, 97).

  • Libyan Studies: a periodical of the Society for Libyan Studies, c/o The Institute of Archaeology, 31-34 Gordon Square London, WC1H OPY,  web: britac.ac.uk/institutes/libya

  • Almogaren, Institutum Canarium (IC): a fascinating research journal, containing studies about Tamazight culture, mythology, religion, prehistoric art and Tifinagh. London’s SOAS catalogue: UVL 916.4, 397,060.

  • Tamatart: Libyan Berber Encyclopedia (in Arabic): tamatart.com


  • Tidmi: a Moroccan weekly review, devoted to Berber culture, published in Rabat.

  • Ifer N Awal: Ifer n wawal: Journal Bimestriel de la culture et civilisation amazighe. Periodique de l'Association Culturelle Awal de Lyon.

  • Tawiza: a monthly journal, current issue: 121, May 2007.

  • Air Info: Agadez, 2002: airinfo-journal.com/index.php

    Air Info Tuareg Newspaper front page

    Air Info: the Tuareg newspaper Air Info was launched in August 2002 by Ibrahim Manzo Diallo, a teacher and a student of literature at the University of Niamey. Agadez was his first newspaper. The first issue appeared on August 9, 2002. In April 2004, the newspaper officially became a media group, which currently has five-permanent employees in Agadez and seven correspondents around the rest of the region.

  • The Damagaram:

    Damagaram tuareg newspaper

    Established in 2006 in Zinder.

  • Izuran: a monthly magazine “devoted exclusively to Amazighité”.

  • Armat:

    Armat - Berber magazine
    Armat is Libya's first official Berber magazine to be launched under the supervision of the Libyan National Centre for Local Cultures Studies (المركز الوطني الليبي لدراسات الثقافات المحلية) on the 29th of December 2012. The entire magazine is in Tamazight and is written in Tifinagh.
    Website: armat.ly

  • Awal: Cahier d’Etudes Berbères: 54, bd Raspail, 75006 Paris France.

  • Kabyle Wikipedia: kab.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asebter_amenzawi

    kabyle wikipedia

  • JDK: Journal de Kabylie: journaldekabylie.com

  • AIMS: the American Institute for Maghrib Studies: promotes the systematic study of North Africa; sponsors the journal; provides funding support; and maintains overseas research centres in Tunis (CEMAT) and Tangiers (TALM). Contact: John P. Entelis, AIMS secretary, Middle East Studies Program-LL915A, Fordham University, 113 West 60th Street, New York, New York 10023, USA.

  • Harvard African Studies, Harvard university.

  • Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics (not to be confused with The Encyclopedia of Religion).

  • amadal amazigh press
    http://www.amadalpresse.com/index.php/archive-pdf: Amadal Amazigh (Tamazight World): monthly newspaper in Arabic, with downloadable pdf archive.

  • Archives Berbères, Paris: a French journal devoted to Berber studies.

  • Tilelli Ifran Newspaper, Libya: libyatadreft.com

    libya tadreft (free libya)

  • Project Gutenberg (gutenberg.org).

  • Page by page books: pagebypagebooks.com: similar to Project Gutenberg.

  • eBay is also a good source of old books.

  • Google’s book search.

  • Google Scholar (scholar.google.com/).

    image of a website
  • Recent Berber Publications: librairie-berbere.com

  • Dr. Lameen Souag: google.com/site/lameen/home

  • Bibliographical References: ee.umd.edu/~sellami/ref.html

  • Lucius Apuleius of Madauros (tazzla.org/apuleius.htm): Berber-Greek Philosopher and World Advocate (c.124 – c. 180 AD): “What subsequent scholarship has failed to emphasize, however, is that Lucius Apuleius  was the first Amazigh philosopher and novelist of world fame, indeed the  first African to Publish outside Africa”  (Extract from tazzla.org/apuleius.htm , by Helene E. Hagan).

  • Berber scholar Chafik wins Prince Claus Award: mondeberbere.com/culture/chafik/claus_eurolang.htm -  “No Berber has ever received such a worthy prize before.”

  • Astronomy: mondeberbere.com/civilization/science/itran.htm - a list of Berber star names, by Tufiq I. Mostefaoui.



Early Publications

The following books, magazines and periodicals date back from the 1970s and early 1980s. They are listed here for historical (or nostalgic) reasons.




tajerrunt tamazight

Tajerrumt N Tmazight
Tantala Taqbaylit
By Mouloud Mammeri
Paris, 1976.




Tilelli Association.











amazigh voice

Newsletter of
The Amazigh Cultural Association.








Magazine exploring Libyan Berber culture. 1983 - 1986.





Amawal (lexique),
Berber-French, French Berber Dictionary, 
Imedyazen, Paris, 1980.




Bulletin d'etudes Berberes.