The Berber department at the University of Tizi-Ouzou was created in 1980.
The Amazigh Language and Culture Department was created in Tizi-Ouzou on the
eve of January 25, 1990. The goal of this institution was to set up a Master
level graduate program in Berber language. A decade after the events of spring
1980, the Algerian Higher Education Ministry had finally accepted the presence
of Berber (cf. Chaker 1989/90, chap. 9). One year later (October 1991), a second
Berber department was created in Bougie. Since their creation, Berberists say,
the two departments have been operating under very difficult conditions.
In 1994 the Algerian authorities began to consider the introduction of Tamazight in
Algerian schools, due to improvements in relations between the government and
its Berber allies. In 1995, the Algerian president L. Zeroual established an
agency to introduce Tamazight in education, leading to "pilot programs" being
started in 16 provinces (out of a total of 48). At the beginning of the 1996
academic year, a decision from the Ministry of Higher Education imposed the establishment
of a licence degree in Berber Language and Culture in the two Berber departments.
And after the foundation of the HCA in Algeria in 1996, several initiatives were
made in favour of teaching Berber in secondary schools; training courses for
teachers were organised; and Berber courses were started in several schools.
The Canadian Ministry of Education in Ontario had officially recognised Tamazight language
and integrated it within its Program of International languages in Ontario in
2001; followed by the Catalonian parliament adopting resolution (1197/VI) in
support of the "Amazigh language" and the introduction of
Tamazight at the university level in 2002. Even though the Moroccan government
did promise the Berbers the freedom to use their language in education way back
in 1994, it was not until the 15th of September 2003 that Berber language was
officially introduced in 317 primary schools across Morocco -- with the aim of
extending the scheme to all the schools in the country by 2013.Also historic,
the Tuareg's school at Djebok, forty kilometres east of Gao; and the
primary-secondary school at Imbassassoutene, south of Timbuktu, which
through its six classes teaches in Tamazight those between the ages of six and
After the February 2011 uprising in Libya, the Berbers of Nafousa Mountain
established their own school classes, in which Berber students were taught using
Tifinagh. A year after the liberation of Libya, Berber schools were established
in most Berber areas in Libya. Between the 10th and the 13th of November 2012
Berber books to teach Tamazight language and the Tifinagh script were distributed
to schools in Nalut, Kabaw, Thimzin, Jado, Yefren and Zuwarah. The manager of
Nalut's Education Office told LANA that teaching Tamazight will be introduced
to years one, two and three of the "primary education" (lana-news.ly/ar/art.php?a=27976).
Only with constitutional protection and government funding that Tamazight can
flourish and begin the Berber revolution against ignorance and tyranny. The only
country in North Africa to recognise "Tamazight" constitutionally is
Morocco, but the announcement seems to coincide with the 2011 popularised
uprisings, and hence critics still say nothing in practice has so far materialised
from such "constitutionalisation".
Berberists need to be aware of the hasty approach to implementing systems
without proper foundation, research and dialogue; and of the possibility of others
hijacking such means to effect other preconceived objectives. Will Berber education
be free from any restrictions introduced in the name of "moderation" and
other political and/or religious limitations? Will Berber education be scientific?
Berber language is now being taught at primary schools for year one,
two and three in all Tamazight-speaking areas in Libya.
Tamazight Language is now being taught in Zuwarah's Literature Faculty, Zuwarah
University (part of Zawiya University). This is the first time in Libya that
Berber language (or Tamazight) is being taught in Libyan university. The opening ceremony was held
on the 29th of July 2015.
Universities, Schools, Courses
Universite Mouloud Mammeri, Tizi Ouzou, Algeria: contact Tamazight Language
Le Centre De Recherche Berbere De l'Inalco (CRB): postal address: 2, rue
de Lille, 75343 Paris. Cedex 07. Address: 49bis, avenue de la Belle Gabrielle,
75012 Paris. Website: centrederechercheberbere.fr
Universite de Bejaia, Department of Tamazight Language & Culture.
Imazighene (Paris), de I'Academie Agraw Imazighene, 37 bis, rue, des
Marronites, 75020 Paris.
Institut National des Langues et Civilisations Orientales, 2, Rue de Lille,
Mande Bukari University, P. O. Box 3041 Bamako, Mali.
Ibn Zohr University, Agadir, Morocco: Amazigh Culture Studies.
SOAS: Schools of Oriental And African Studies, London UK.
The British Library: bl.uk), London, UK.
Leiden University, Holland: Prof. Harry Stroomer, P.O. Box 9515, 2300 RA
Leiden. Mena Lafkioui, firstname.lastname@example.org (Tarifit dialect), Tashelh’it
(Tachelhit) and other Berber dialects: Prof. Dr. Harry Stroomer (Berber Languages).
Academic Institutions in the Netherlands, research & teaching Tamazigh
in the Netherlands:
University of Leiden
University of Tilburg
University of Utrecht
University of Nijmegen
University of Cadiz, Spain, courses in Tamazight.
Universite Paris III Sorbonne Nouvelle (Centre Censier),
13, rue Santeuil, 75005 Paris. Groupe D'etudes Berberes
- Universite Paris III, 2, rue de la Liberte, 93526 Saint-Denis cedex 02.
University of Michigan:
1)- Course In Spoken Tamazight (Ayt Ayache and Ayt Seghrouchen dialects,
2)- Reference Grammar of Tamazight Language.
3)- Comuterised Lexicon of the Tamazight Language.
Ottawa, Canada: ACAOH (Amazigh Cultural Association in Ottawa-Hull) reported
that Tamazight classes are to resume in September 2002, every Saturday. They
also reported that Ottawa approved the introduction of Tamazight “in primary
and high school classes on demand.”
IRCAM: The Royal Institute for Amazigh Culture: Centre des affaires (Aile
Sud), Avenue Riad, BP 2055 Hay Riad Rabat, Tel: 037-71-78-83, 037-71-77-84/85,
fax: 037-71-49-63, ircam.ma: the web site of Morocco’s Royal Institute for Amazigh
Culture: download Tamazight keyboard for Windows and Mac based systems.
Journals, Periodicals, Encyclopedias & Research Links
Le Journal Officiel du Gouvernement provisoire kabyle:
Berber Encyclopedia: Encyclopédie Berbère.
The Journal Of North African Studies (JNAS),
published in Summer, Autumn and Winter by Frank Cass And Company Limited, Newbury
House, 900 Eastern Avenue, London IG2 7HH, England. The Centre for North African
Studies was founded in 1995 as an independent charity; it organises lectures
and forums on N. African affairs, and sponsors research.
Libya Antiqua: a periodical of the Libyan Department
of Antiquities. The Robinson Library has most of the first series (1960 – 1980),
while the SOAS Library, [L UVL913.3974 330838; and Per 107L 246711], holds Vol.1-16
(1964-1979); New Series Vol. 1, 2, 3 (1995, 96, 97).
Libyan Studies: a periodical of the Society for
Libyan Studies, c/o The Institute of Archaeology, 31-34 Gordon Square London,
WC1H OPY, web: britac.ac.uk/institutes/libya
Almogaren, Institutum Canarium (IC): a fascinating
research journal, containing studies about Tamazight culture, mythology,
religion, prehistoric art and Tifinagh. London’s SOAS catalogue: UVL 916.4,
Tamatart: Libyan Berber Encyclopedia (in Arabic):
Tidmi: a Moroccan weekly review, devoted
to Berber culture, published in Rabat.
Ifer N Awal: Ifer n wawal: Journal Bimestriel
de la culture et civilisation amazighe. Periodique de l'Association Culturelle
Awal de Lyon.
Tawiza: a monthly journal, current issue: 121,
Air Info: Agadez, 2002: airinfo-journal.com/index.php
Air Info: the Tuareg newspaper Air Info was launched
in August 2002 by Ibrahim Manzo Diallo, a teacher and a student of literature
at the University of Niamey. Agadez was his first
newspaper. The first issue appeared on August 9, 2002. In April 2004, the newspaper
officially became a media group, which currently has five-permanent employees
in Agadez and seven correspondents around the rest of the region.
Established in 2006 in Zinder.
a monthly magazine “devoted exclusively to Amazighité”.
Armat is Libya's first official Berber magazine to be launched under the supervision
of the Libyan National Centre for Local Cultures Studies (المركز الوطني الليبي
لدراسات الثقافات المحلية) on the 29th of December 2012. The entire magazine is
in Tamazight and is written in Tifinagh.
AIMS: the American Institute for Maghrib
Studies: promotes the systematic study of North Africa; sponsors the journal;
provides funding support; and maintains overseas research centres in Tunis (CEMAT)
and Tangiers (TALM). Contact: John P. Entelis, AIMS secretary, Middle East Studies
Program-LL915A, Fordham University, 113 West 60th Street, New York, New York
Harvard African Studies, Harvard university.
Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics (not
to be confused with The Encyclopedia of Religion).
Lucius Apuleius of Madauros (tazzla.org/apuleius.htm):
Berber-Greek Philosopher and World Advocate (c.124 – c. 180 AD): “What subsequent
scholarship has failed to emphasize, however, is that Lucius Apuleius was the
first Amazigh philosopher and novelist of world fame, indeed the first African
to Publish outside Africa” (Extract from tazzla.org/apuleius.htm , by Helene
Berber scholar Chafik wins Prince Claus Award:
mondeberbere.com/culture/chafik/claus_eurolang.htm - “No Berber has ever received
such a worthy prize before.”
- a list of Berber star names, by Tufiq I. Mostefaoui.
The following books, magazines and periodicals date back from the 1970s and
early 1980s. They are listed here for historical (or nostalgic) reasons.
Tajerrumt N Tmazight
By Mouloud Mammeri