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gaddafi smiling

Muammar al-Qaddafi (معمر القذافي) (7 June 1942 - 20 October 2011)

Brother Leader Colonel Muammar Alqaddafi;
the Dictator of Libya; the Prophet of the Desert;
the Supreme Commander of the Libyan Armed Forces;
the King of the Kings of Africa;

Born in year 42 and ruled Libya for 42 years.
Installed in year 69 and removed at the age of 69.


Childhood & Education

Full name: Muammar Abuminyar Alqaddafi. His surname, often written in various forms including Gadhafi, Qadhafi, Khadafi and Kadafi, refers to the Gdadfa (or Qadhadhfa) tribe – an Arabised Berber tribe from the gulf of Sirte. His exact date of birth cannot be confirmed, but some sources say he was born in a tent in the Jaref village, 30km from Sirte, on the 7th of June 1942; while other sources say he was born before 1940. His mother, Aisha, died in 1978; and his father, Mhemmed Abdulsalam Binhamed (known as Abuminyar), died in 1985. Gaddafi attended primary school in Sirte, where he slept in the local mosque for the week. In the weekend Gaddafi walked 30km back to his parents tent. After primary school Gaddafi's parents moved to Sabha, Fezzan, where Gaddafi attended secondary school. After getting involved in a number of violent protests he was expelled from Sabha and moved to Misrata, where he continued his secondary education. He joined the Libyan Military Academy in Benghazi in 1961, after which he was noticed, picked, trained, and reportedly installed on the 1st of September 1969 at the age of 27.



gaddafi in 1973


Coup d'etat: 1969

Among the first actions taken by Gaddafi after he was installed via a military coup on the 1st of September 1969 was to expel the Italian, British and the American troops stationed in Libya. He then embarked on his "Arabisation" program by introducing the word "Arab" into Libya's official name while declaring the native Berbers the enemy of the so-called "white revolution". Gaddafi claimed he was only a "Brother-Leader of the revolution" and that he holds no political role or presidential position in the Libyan regime; yet he is the Supreme Commander of the Libyan Armed Forces!  Making all Libyans Arabs and Muslims by force, he openly denyed the existence and the rights of all ethnic groups and banned all political parties in Libya, before imposing his "Green Book" as the only way forward. He has formed armed groups known as "revolutionary committees" that were licensed to "end lives on the spot", as they spread fear across the country, implementing his rule and eliminating any opposition on the way (to nowhere). He banned alcohol, closed down night clubs, casinos, brothels, and turned churches into mosques. Soon afterwards people began to tremble with fear upon hearing Gaddafi's name, especially after the ceremony of hanging his opponents began to appear live on Libyan TV.


Gaddafi walking in London
Gaddafi Walking in London (Piccadilly Square)

Photo source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Gaddafi_in_London.jpg


Was Gaddafi Installed, Used, Then Removed?

It is almost certain that Gaddafi was used and then removed by the bomb. The tricky part is whether if he was installed to do a specific job or not! There were a number of reports stating that Gaddafi was installed (by other powers), and this was hinted at by the Saudi king in one of the Arab summits in which Gaddafi accused Saudi Arabia of being an agent of "Satan", to which the Saudi king replied "men jaabek lilhokom, men jaabek lilhokom?" 'who brought you to power'? (https://youtu.be/eYY_ws6axKo)

Of course, such covert operations are top secret and are designed to be undetected, and therefore to demand a direct proof (say documents) to prove that Gaddafi was installed defeats the point. How many people, for example, still believe that the Arab Spring is not a foreign operation but a local spontaneous unrest?

Gaddafi completed his military training at the Royal Libyan Military Academy, the Sandhurst of the Libyan army. The academy was set up in 1957. Under king Idris the Libyan army was trained by the British military. Gaddafi had also completed a four-month training course in the UK.

There were countless attempts to remove Gaddafi from power but somehow he had managed to survive every one of them. When the time arrived to unleash the arsenal he accumulated in 42 years Gaddafi was removed by foreign powers in a seven-month bombing campaign in 2011, and consequently was replaced by the installed NTC (knowing it was  infiltrated by "Qaida flicker" and fundamental elements).

Some argue that it was impossible for a group of young cadets to organise such a coup for such a long time (between 1961 and 1969) without being noticed by neither the British military (who were running the academy) nor the king's forces. It is also strange that the CIA had no knowledge of the coup despite its presence in Libya and despite the fact that the Americans were said to have been watching the events in Libya from Wheelus Base.

Some historians argue that subverting the military communication network was top priority for the coup to succeed, and thus Gaddafi's specialised subject at the Academy was "signals"; for which he was sent to Britain on a course with the "British Royal Armoured Corps" at Bovingdon. After his training Gaddafi took over the main Libyan army signals centre in Benghazi, ready to remove the previously installed king Idris.  


stamp: our army is our shield

Libyan stamp showing the word "Arabic" as part of Libya's official name for the first time in history.

Arabisation of Libya

Among the first changes to be affected by the coup was the change of the name of the country from the Kingdom of Libya to the Libyan Arab Republic, then to the Great Socialist People’s Libyan Arab Jamahiriya ('The State of The Masses'); thereby bringing the term "Arab" into the equation for the first time in the history of Libya. The term Jamahiriya was coined by Colonel Mua'mmar al-Qaddafi and defined as: the state of the masses governed by the populace via local councils elected by the people of Libya. He also replaced  Roman letters in street signs and banners with Arabic letters.

This Arabisation trend, part of the colonial independence saga, fuelled the notion of Arab Nationalism, or the idea of creating the so-called "Arab World", characterised by installing dictators under the disguise of revolution. Certain monarchies however were protected to stay.

Exiled Berberists and Libyan Arab refugees protested with all they could, but unfortunately the world was then busy arming Gaddafi, and seemingly sowing the seeds for the next phase – to arm every single Libyan household and to spread Libyan weapons across the whole region under the pretext of "protection of civilians" and "mistakes" respectively.


Month names as changed by Gaddafi

  • January: أي النار Ayy an-Nar (which of the fire)
  • February: النوار an-Nuwwar (the enlightener or the morning)
  • March الربيع ar-Rabi' (the spring)
  • April: الطير aṭ-Ṭayr (the bird)
  • May: الماء al-Ma (the water)
  • June: الصيف aṣ-Ṣayf (the summer)
  • July: ناصر Naṣer (victorious, also the surname of Gamal Abdulnaser)
  • August: هانيبال Hanibal (Hannibal)
  • September: الفاتح al-Fatiḥ (the opener, the initiator)
  • October: التمور at-Tumur (palm dates)
  • November: الحرث al-Ḥarth (the tillage)
  • December: الكانون al-Kanun


Weaponising The People Program

The program to distribute arms to the Libyan people was part of Gaddafi's Cultural Revolution (see next). Allegedly the program's goal is to arm the Libyan people so that they can defend and protect Gaddafi's coup. In reality however such program never existed, except forcing most Libyans to attend military training camps across the country. Students had to attend the camps during the summer holidays. No arms were given to the people after completion of training. In fact even regular soldiers and military officers in all military barracks across the country were either given blank ammunition or else had no ammunition at all - just empty kalashinkov rifles. This move  was taken to eliminate the possibility of any coup against Gaddafi. Therefore there never was any program called weaponising the people, and thus the program should be renamed: "deweaponsing the Libyan army".


green flagThe Cultural Revolution

On the  15th of  April 1973 Gaddafi stormed the Berber coastal town of Zuwarah to deliver his historic speech in which he declared his cultural revolution. The revolution was organised around five points, after which the city of Zuwarah was officially renamed "The Five Points". These points are:

  • Dissolving all existing laws and replacing them with a mixture of revolutionary enactments and sharia law.
  • The removal of all the opponents of the revolution including communism, capitalism, conservatism, atheists, the Muslim Brotherhood, and Berberists.
  • The distribution of arms to the people in his “weaponising the people” program.
  • The creation of the People's Committees. 
  • The cultural revolution to cleanse Libya of poisonous, foreign influences.




Gaddafi's Obtuse Politics

Supposedly from dark imperialism to bright liberalism Libya quickly became a new symbol of hope and justice, as the new regime immediately became a formidable force that swept the country with euphoria and fear. The New government promised the people freedom, greater social justice, wealth-sharing, and equality; but in reality the people were subjugated, made poor, their lands confiscated, their businesses destroyed (in the name of failed Public Markets), then subjected to images of regular summary executions on TV. They were then imprisoned in their own homes at night as his armed revolutionary squads turned livelihoods into ghost towns – in search of conspirators plotting to overthrow the brother-leader.

Law 20 (1991) of the new constitution stated that all Libyans are equal and free, and, according to the principle of "Democracy is people's authority and power and not public expression", all Libyan people have the right to exercise authority and enjoy power. In reality however justice will always remain a theoretical concept played to effect certain objectives, as the majority of Libyans (including the native Berbers and other minorities) were persecuted and punished for being who they are. They have to be somebody else; they have to integrate; they have to conform, or else "disappear" as Gaddafi (and later NTC's Abduljalil) had openly said.

Soon after the September coup, Gaddafi's striking personality and aggressive ideological style brought him in direct confrontation with a number of countries, and earned him front headlines from around the world – Gaddafi began to do his job. His main objective was to challenge the imperial superpowers, rule the Arab world by impersonating the ideals of Naser, liberate Palestine, and unite the Arabs and mix the lot in one melting pot – a trap, to say the least. Gaddafi wanted to do everything except what needs to be done: steer Libya away from doomed politics.

After he was dragged to sponsor rebels and terror groups from around the world and ignite a number of wars with neighbouring countries, Libya's future began to suffer the dire consequences of confrontation. Ronald Reagan earlier said the "Mad Dog of the Middle East" has a goal of a world Muslim fundamental revolution. Sanctions imposed by the hijacked UN literally brought the country to its knees, while typically leaving the leadership and decision makers unaffected.

Even though he appeared a freedom fighter to many suffering peoples from around the world, especially to many Africans (due to his generosity), inside Libya however he had proved to be a brutal dictator who oppressed his people and deprived them of their own wealth while squandering Libya's income on rebel movements and terrorist organisations from around the world. He even deprived people of their mental faculty to function as "thinking humans" by stifling free speech and burning many bookshops during his so-called cultural revolution.

This, according to most Libyans, was his greatest mistake – the self-catalyst that was built-in to turn the wheel. In fact this point was pointed out by a number of analysts who said even though many dictators helped other freedom fighters across the globe they always oppressed their own people and deprived them of  the freedom they openly proclaim to support elsewhere.

If Gaddafi had introduced democracy, shared Libya's wealth amongst the Libyans, allowed the natives to live as free humans, focused on building Libya, and steered away from Arab dictators he would have been worshipped as a "prophet of the desert". He could have used Libya's wealth and resources to sponsor freedom movements from around the world in a peaceful way, away from violence and oppression. Such direction was said to have been taken by his son Saifalislam, but unfortunately other elements had prevented him from applying the final cut. Reportedly Gaddafi's government was infiltrated by traitors whose main objective is to fail the revolution and prepare Libya for the next disaster.

The West, of course, the reported seat of double-standards and deception, was happy to do business with Gaddafi (as they still do with Arabia), and even as recent as 2004 the British welcomed Gaddafi back into the international community as the "great statesman", while sowing the seeds for the next brutal government to wreak more havoc than Gaddafi did in his entire 42 years. This latest bomb-installed government would face the same fate saved for Gaddafi, unless they abandon their foreign masters and apply radical changes to their outdated politics and embrace freedom without any limitations.



gaddafi poster

Gaddafi's wife Safiya after Reagan's bombing of Libya in 1986.


Gaddafi's Economic Experiment

There is no doubt that it is safe to admit that Gaddafi had ruined the Libyan economy by  outlawing business and free trade. Instead he introduced massive "public stores" (supermarkets) that plunged the country into shortages of everything including bread. Changing the Libyan currency repeatedly and confiscating land and property from those who owned more than one property had brought the Libyan economy to a halt. Unemployment in Libya reached nearly 40%, with most Libyans ending up having nothing at all and nothing to do. As a result, people were given wages by the government to stay at home, not because they are unemployed but because of "lack of work", Gaddafi said, despite Libya being one of the richest countries in the world that is capable of propelling Libya into space . Imagine the possibilities if Libyans truly take matters into their hands, one day? 


Albanian Libya

From the 1970s Gaddafi imposed "exist visa" on all Libyans wishing to travel abroad (except for the elite). The only way for any Libyan to leave the "closed" country was either via a student visa (for those studying abroad), on medical visa (those seeking medical treatment that cannot be provided in Libya), or using fake visa. Some Libyans resorted to crossing the land borders illegally to neighbouring countries on foot. During that period (which continued until early 2000s) the Libyans compared Libya to Albania. Crippled by international sanctions and plighted with military tyranny the Libyans were imprisoned on their own homes. Venturing out at night without having the papers to prove you either had attended military training or else exempt from service was very risky, as the revolutionary committee guards were patrolling the ghost towns of Libya in search of "humans".


Gaddafi's main contribution to Libyan society

There is no doubt that Gaddafi had transformed Libya in many ways. He embarked on a massive development projects, building roads, homes, hospitals, schools and universities; transforming arid land into farms; creating factories; and built the largest engineering project in the world: the Man Made River across the Sahara desert.

However, he failed to eliminate the poverty that flourished during the era of the corrupt monarchy despite Libya's newly discovered wealth: oil and gas. Instead he began to bring immigrants from the Arab world (and then the communist countries) while leaving the Libyans out of work. He squandered Libya's wealth on rebel groups and terror cells from around the world while the Libyans were left in deep poverty. He lacked the cutting edge to transform Libya into a prosperous state.

  • Free education at home
  • Free education abroad
  • Free housing
  • Free medical services & medicines
  • Free amenities
  • Interest-free loans
  • Loans to buy a car, lorry, taxi or a bus for work (paid back after start of earning)
  • Free farming machinery
  • Creation of seed banks on a global scale
  • Agricultural revolution (Man-Made River)
  • Equal rights for women
  • The Green Book
  • The Third World Theory
  • The White Book
  • Poverty
  • Spread chaos across Libya
  • Stifled free speech
  • Spoke about justice and freedom while oppressing the Libyans
  • Oppressing the native Berbers and Tebu as agents of foreign agenda
  • Oppressing opposition groups of all kinds
  • Corruption on a massive scale
  • International sanctions
  • Crippled Libya
  • Brutal military apparatus
  • The Brutal Revolutionary Committees
  • Wars (with Egypt, Chad, Tunisia, America, and the Libyan people)
  • Squandering Libya's wealth abroad (on various terror groups and rebel movements)
  • Keeping Libyans jobless and poor
  • Empty deserted shops
  • Demolishing free trade and business
  • Banning books and other publications
  • Closing down bars and taverns
  • Closing down night clubs and casinos
  • Introduction of super stores that soon became empty
  • Nuclear & chemical programs
  • Gaining African influences (with his cheque book)
  • Summary executions without fair trial
  • Spreading his photos and posters across Libya
  • Flooding Libya with immigrants and foreigners
  • Building massive arms bunkers across the country (409 bunkers in total)
  • Demoralising Libyans
  • Banning Berber names
  • Banning Berber music
  • Imprisoning Libyans inside Libya (imposing exit visa)
  • Barring cultural expression
  • Collective punishment (Berbers, Tebu), such as depriving whole towns of drinking water and hospitals
  • Imposing dictatorship which ultimately allowed foreign bombers to destroy Libya's entire infrastructure under the pretext of protection




gaddafi in 2009


The Murder of Gaddafi: "extra judicially killed"


Even though Gaddafi was a dictator, just like 140 other dictators and semi-dictators still enjoying recognition at the UN, his grotesque murder is a war crime the UN should investigate. The other crime is destroying Libya's entire infrastructure for absolutely nothing but plunging the whole country into complete anarchy and killing an "old man" for something he never said (see the Speeches tab, above, for more on this).

According to then NTC prime minister, Mr. Mahmoud Jibril, Gaddafi was killed by foreign agents because he had many secrets. Foreign special forces, CIA operatives, and war generals from several states including dictatorial countries were among the rebels all over Libya, and there is no way to confirm anyone of them did or did not commit the grotesque murder. 

In fact according to this report (http://tribune.com.pk/story/446155/french-spy-not-lynch-mob-killed-gaddafi-report/) Gaddafi was murdered by a French spy who infiltrated the rebels, even though the given motive appears to be no more than a distraction from the bigger storm sweeping the whole region with destruction.

It was said that Gaddafi's convoy was hit by a US drone and the French air force as the convoy was leaving Sirte and therefore the attack is contrary to the Geneva convention. International law prohibits the assassination of any head of state, as it is also illegal under US law. Many of the forces involved in the bombing of Gaddafi's convoy denied any knowledge of Gaddafi being among the passengers of the convoy – just bomb anything without finding out what it is! Besides, killing without intent is still charged as "manslaughter".

However, the NTC had reported around one week before the capture of Gaddafi that his son Mutasim was captured by NTC rebels, and as it is widely known that Mutasim was Gaddafi's main body guard and security advisor (and thus is always with Gaddafi) it is possible that Gaddafi himself was captured a week before the media announced his capture in Sirte. The NTC never commented on its first report after the capture of Gaddafi, just like they announced the murder of general Abdulfattah Younis without even finding his body; and when Gaddafi was captured he was captured together with Mutasim!

It was also reported that Gaddafi was captured hiding in a "large drainage pipe", but to date there is not a single photo or video showing Gaddafi being dragged from the pipe despite the abundance of mobile phones. It was probably a faked response to Gaddafi calling the rebels "rats".

Nonetheless, regardless of how, when and where he was captured, according to Libyan traditions it was totally inhuman to drag an old man like an animal, shoot him in the belly, beat him on the head, then shoot him in the head, and therefore it is very much doubtful that it was the Libyans who killed him.

The released videos of his capture, none of which show him being dragged out of a drainage pipe, are too horrific to be embedded here; even though media outlets from around the world aired them during "prime time".

The American Secretary of State at the time even laughed about the news of Gaddafi's murder when she said: "We came; we saw; he died" (https://youtu.be/FmIRYvJQeHM).

What distinguishes a civilised human from a barbarian savage is the former's recognition of basic human rights and the basic principles of democracy: fair trial and the benefit of the doubt until proven guilty. Hence, most Libyans preferred to see Gaddafi stand before the courts of law to defend his case. 

There is no doubt that the alleged objective of the UN's no-fly zone is to protect the Libyan people (from an imaginary massacre, of course), but the implied (and hidden objective), according to Lord Dannatt, is "of course . . . the removal of Colonel Gaddafi".

The result however was "complete destruction of Libya's infrastructure" as well as pulverising Gaddafi's regime and ending in his grotesque murder. The stench of his rotting body, left in a meat locker with putrefied liquid trickling beneath, had attracted onlookers to Misrata queuing for 20 Libyan Dinars; and in a secret grave in the desert he was buried to disintegrate, allegedly to avoid the contrasting conflict of his enemies' desecration and his loyalists instigating a shrine for the world to see.




"This is when I understood"

the twin towers with smoke in the shape of 2011

This image was originally published by the Libyan online newspaper Oea,
run by Saifalislam's Alghad Media Services Company at www.oealibya.com/.

The image was published shortly after the uprising began in Libya in 2011.

It says in Arabic: "this is when I understood".

Recalling memories of 1911,
when Libya was invaded by the colonial intruders and Benghazi bombed more than 1000 times,
killing 100,000 Libyans in the process.






gaddafi poster
Gaddafi and his wife Safiya



  • 7 June 1942: Muammar Gaddafi was born in Sirte to the Arabised Berber Qadhadhfa clan.

  • 1942-1960: after school he attempted to study geography and history at Benghazi University. After dropping out of Benghazi University he joined the army.

  • 1961-1966: he joined the Royal Libyan Military Academy in Benghazi in 1961 (other sources say 1963), where he was noticed, picked and trained in Britain. The Libyan Military Academy, the Sandhurst of the Libyan army, was set up in 1957.

  • 1 September 1969: installed via a bloodless-coup (the so-called white revolution). The previously installed king was sent abroad for  medical treatment. 

  • 1970s: begins his role: the sponsor and support of terror groups from around the world, while suppressing the Libyans and persecuting the natives at home. Some of the groups he sponsored include the German Baader-Meinhof gang, the Irish IRA, the Italian Red Brigades, and the Basque ETA.

  • 1970: divorced Fatiha; married to Safiya.
  • 1973: declaration of the "Cultural Revolution" (or the Popular Revolution) in Zuwarah; declares the Berber identity as "the enemy of the revolution"; begins his “weaponising the people” program; and creates the "revolutionary committees".

  • 1975: publishes the Green Book.

  • 1977: renames Libya "the Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya". His short skirmishes with Egypt end in failure.

  • 1978: provides support and arms to Chadian rebels.

  • 1980s: begins his "Liquidation Program" (assassinating Libyan exiles worldwide); terror activity in Europe (including the bombing the La Belle nightclub in Berlin in 1986, which resulted in Ronald Reagan bombing Libyan targets and Gaddafi being named "the mad dog of the Middle East". 

  • 1984: controversial shooting of the British police officer Yvonne Fletcher;  Channel 4 broadcasts a program showing the possibility of shooting coming from another building other than the Libyan embassy. 

  • 1987: Gaddafi was defeated in the Chad war.

  • 1988: Libya was accused of being responsible for the bombing of Pan Am flight 103. In 1999 Gaddafi handed over two Libyan suspects for Scottish trial in the Netherlands; Abdelbasset Almegrahi was convicted,  released after the 2011 February Operation, and dies in Libya of Cancer. Years later Scottish independent investigators had concluded that Libya was not involved in the bombing. The case still open and the victims' families still seek justice.
  • 1989: the declaration of the Maghreb union between Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco and Mauritania.

  • 1990s: Gaddafi breaks away from the Arabs, expels Palestinian refugees and immigrants, and turns to Africa for attention. 

  • 1992: the UN Security Council imposes sanctions on Libya after Libya agreed to pay compensation for the victims of the Lockerbie bombing disaster.

  • 1996: the creation of Aljazeera: Aljazeera was created after the closure of the BBC's Arabic language television station. Much of the staff came from the 250 journalists displaced by the closure of "the BBC World Service's Saudi-co-owned Arabic language TV station" (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Al_Jazeera).

  • 2002: the US launched the Middle East Partnership Initiative (MEPI: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MEPI). The program supports reform efforts in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). According to Wikipedia, "MEPI’s gradual, “bottom-up” public diplomacy approach is a process to create conditions where the pressure for change will come from Arabs themselves."
  • 2003: after the invasion of Iraq and the subsequent hanging of Saddam Gaddafi abandons his program to develop weapons of mass destruction and re-establishes his relations with the West. On September 2003 the UN Security Council votes unanimously to lift sanctions imposed on Libya in 1992. Tony Blair began his program with Gaddafi to "bring him out of the cold" - presumably "straight into hell".

  • 2003: Musa Kusa (the chief of the Libyan Intelligence, the reported double agent) arrives in the UK to begin talks with his American and British counterparts. Staff at the Bay Tree Hotel (in Sheep Street, Burford, UK)  were stunned to learn later that the hotel had been the meeting place of senior Libyan, American and British spies on the 20th of November 2003. One of the issues discussed was how to end Colonel Gaddafi’s chemical and biological weapons. According to oxfordmail.co.uk (http://www.oxfordmail.co.uk/news/9337991.Noted_hotel_was_base_for_spy_talk/),
    "The Cotswold connection with the intelligence world was unearthed by a national newspaper journalist examining secret files in Tripoli after the fall of the Gaddafi regime.” 

  • December 2003: one month after the Musa Kusa meeting Gaddafi makes a deal with the West and agreed to abandon his weapons of mass destruction programs, and cooperate with the West on counter terrorism.

  • January 2004: first visit by an American congressional delegation to Libya since Gaddafi came to power, as lawmakers arrived to start the "integration" and "inspection".

  • 2004-2007: March 2004: Gaddafi re-established relations with the UK. British Prime Minister Tony Blair meets Gaddafi, whom, according to British reports, later became his investment advisor. Part of the deal was for Gaddafi to fully cooperate with them in issues of terrorism and reintegration in return for the British to fix his army and strengthen Gaddafi's security and communication systems, including the plan to establish a special unit in Libya to train Gaddafi's forces to combat riots.  On 1st March 2011, the Daily Mail wrote:

"Blair's 'dodgy deal' to arm Gaddafi: Leaked paper shows how ex-PM agreed to supply military kit . . . The SAS did train Libyan special forces and Britain approved export licences for military kit, including rifles, ammunition and riot control equipment . . . The document detailing the defence deal has previously been published on a Foreign Office wesbite, but has been removed. Yesterday it was leaked to the Daily Mail. It summarises a defence co-operation agreement signed by Mr Blair and Gaddafi in the Libyan town of Sirte on May 29, 2007. It mentions ‘the conduct of joint exercises’, ‘training in operational planning processes, staff training, and command and control’, and the ‘acquisition of equipment and defence systems’. It spells out how the SAS would train Libyan special forces, which are now keeping Gaddafi in power, and called for ‘co-operation in the training of specialised military units, special forces and border security units.’ " [source: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1361638/Libya-Tony-Blairs-dodgy-deal-arm-Gadd]

  • 2004: The Rendition Business: the program to start handing over Gaddafi's Islamic enemies began in full cooperation with British Intelligence, in a program initiated by Tony Blair. "The operation was arranged in 2004 at the time of Tony Blair's "deal in the desert" with Gaddafi, after which UK intelligence services helped track down and hand over his opponents" (http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2012/dec/13/libyan-dissident-mi6-aided-rendition). One of these opponents later (after the 2011 operation) found himself the Military Governor of Tripoli (see February 17 page for more on this).

  • 2005: Gaddafi began amassing a massive fortune in the West. A report published by Los Angeles Times (October 2011 (http://www.latimes.com/news/nationworld/world/la-fg-kadafi-money-20111022,0,5740812.story) shows that Gaddafi had secretly stashed away more than $200 billion in bank accounts, real estate and corporate investments around the world before he was killed. The report also says that, "Investigators believe Kadafi's foreign investments accelerated in recent years. Almost all the assets and accounts found in the United States were from the last four or five years."

  • May 2006: America announces that it will restore full diplomatic relations with Gaddafi's Libya - presumably in preparation for the Libya Job.

  • 2007: Democracy Now interviews US Presidential Candidate Wesley Clark, March 2nd 2007. In the following video (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pyEJ6Aja-UQ) he says America had made the decision, on the 20th of September, after 9/11, to go to war with seven countries: "Iraq, Syria, Libya, Lebanon, Somalia, Sudan and Iran".

    Mind you, though, oil has nothing to do with it - just a good distraction to keep the flow going. Iran currently being tamed for 2020, just as Gaddafi was after Saddam. Also the remark that they are going to war because they do not know what to do does not make sense, otherwise how could they prepare a list of 7 countries to invade if they had no plan?

    US General Wesley Clark says America will bomb Libya [soon]

  • September 2008: Condoleezza Rice meets Gaddafi in Tripoli, where Gaddafi refuses to shake hands with her and instead he pointed to the sofa. This was the first visit by a US Secretary of State since 1953.

  • 2008: Africom: Africom was created in 2008. See "The imperial agenda of the US's 'Africa Command' marches on With mission accomplished in Libya, Africom now has few obstacles to its military ambitions on the continent" (http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2012/jun/14/africom-imperial-agenda-marches-on). The bombing of Libya in 2011 was Africom's first war in Africa.

  • June 2009: Gaddafi visits Italy (for the first time). On March the 24th 2009 the US Assistant Secretary of State for Consular Affairs, Janice L. Jacobs, cuts the ribbon on the new consular section of the American Embassy in Tripoli. Ambassador Gene A. Cretz.

  • 2009: Gaddafi visits America for first time to give a lengthy speech at the UN general assembly – lasting one hour and 30 minutes (see Speeches tab, in the above menu). Still oblivious to . . .

  • 2010: Libya complains to America about the US interference in Libya's internal affairs, after embassy members visited Nafousa Mountain sites without permission from the Libyan government. The diplomat was expelled, and tension began to build between the two countries again.

  • February 2011: CIA agents arrive in Libya, after Obama authorised a secret mission.

  • 17 of March 2011: the UN Security Council authorised a no-fly zone over Libya and military action to protect civilians against Gaddafi's army  by "all necessary means".

  • 19 March 2011: the international bombing campaign of Libya began precisely at 16:45 GMT on the 19th of March 2011.  In total 18 countries took part in the military operations against Libya, including Sweden, Denmark, Norway, Holland, Canada, Belgium, Bulgaria, Romania, France, Spain, Italy, Greece, Turkey, UK, USA, Qatar, Jordan and United Arab Emirates.

  • Even though the mission under UNHCR 1973 is  to protect the Libyan civilians (from an imaginary massacre of Benghazi) the implied task, of course, is the removal of Colonel Gaddafi. And even though the implied objective is the removal of Gaddafi the actual results of the seven-month, relentless bombing campaign was "complete destruction of Libya's infrastructure" as well as pulverising Gaddafi's regime and ending in his grotesque murder. Mission accomplished. Libya was abandoned to the created militias and terror groups from around the world, and chaos reigned.













The Green Book (الكتاب الأخضر)


The Green Book was first published in 1975 by Gaddafi. The book is a mixture of religious beliefs, socialism and Mao Tse-tung's communism. The Green Book consists of three parts, named Paert1, Part 2 and Part 3, and has 82 pages. The book was written in Arabic and was translated to English by www.algathafi.org.

The book rejects capitalism and its impoverishing power, and instead it attempts to introduce a new kind of democracy represented by the General People's Committee (GPC), which oversees local committees representing all towns and cities in Libya.

The people of each town, city or village visit their local committee and express their views and present their demands which the leaders of the local committee take to the GPC to discuss and endorse. 

The principles defined in the Green Book allegedly aim to outline Gaddafi's new form of democracy in which both wealth and power are supposedly shared between all the people in a country for the benefit of the people. In theory that is what most political crackpots claim, but in practice there is no such country anywhere in the world that truly upholds the power of people and shares its wealth with the people.



green libya stamps


In 1973 Gaddafi declared the Cultural or Popular Revolution, in which he outlined his revolutionary ideas to combat bureaucracy, smite corruption, bring to attention the lack of public participation, and urge the Libyan people to stand up and take over the corrupted governmental institutions; and thus the "people's committees"  were created across Libya as regional administrations in what is known as "direct democracy" as described in his Green Book.

 In reality, Libya was complete chaos, drowned in corruption, and plighted with lack of management. Projects never finished, laws never implemented, and recommendations never left the drawing table.

According to this cultural model, the Berbers of Libya were said by Gaddafi to be "the original Arabs", while at times they appeared either as "the agents of foreign imperialism" or "the sons of Satan".





illustration of green book government structure





Arabic: download the full text of the Green Book in Arabic: معمر القذافى– الكتاب الأخضر


English: download the full text of the Green Book in English


Archive.org: download the Green Book as archived by www.archive.org



Isratin: Gaddafi's White Book



Gaddafi the White Book



The "White Book" cl-aims to introduce peace to the turbulent Middle East by presenting a workable solution to the problem in which both the Jews and their brothers the Arabs can live in harmony. This was a massive change from Gaddafi's early calls to liberate Jerusalem instead. Both Jews and Arabs are the descendants of one ancestor; both languages (Hebrew & Arabic) are sister languages in the Semitic branch of the Afrasiatic family; and both have similar religions.










Chemical Weapons & Covert Operations


Tarhuna Chemical Facility


Tarhunah Chemical Plant

According to 'Weapons of Mass Destruction' (Volume 2,  edited by Eric Croddy, James J. Wirtz):

  • the Tarhunah facility was built in the early 1990s inside a granite mountain
  • the Tarhunah facility was described by the CIA as the "world's largest underground chemical weapons plant"
  • Libya used chemical warfare (CW) in Chad in late 1980s
  • the technology used to build the Rabta Plant (Pharma 150) was acquired from West Germany
  • in 2003 Libya engaged in negotiations with America and Britain over its WMD programs



Rabta Chemical plant, Nafousah Mountain (near Gharyan)



Mustard Gas

According to a number of sources, it has been confirmed by the US in the past that Libya had already produced up to 100 tons of mustard blister agent and sarin nerve agent at the Rabta Chemical Plant before the plant was mysteriously destroyed by fire in March 1990.

The Rabta complex is located about 60 miles southwest of Tripoli, not far from Gharyan. The complex still remains heavily guarded by Gaddafi's forces at the time of the uprising. However, there are various stories told as to the cause of fire including the possibility of a hoax, perpetrated by Gaddafi after the US expressed its concern about the plant. America says satellite imagery showed the Rabta fire was a hoax, with burn marks were painted on undamaged buildings, and the fires were a result of flammable materials ignited to start the fires.

According to Washingtonpost.com:

"Experts believe that Libya destroyed about 3,300 bombshells designed to carry mustard and sarin gas chemicals years ago, as part of its deal to end decades of economic and diplomatic isolation with the West. But some 10 metric tons of mustard sulfate and sarin gas precursor remain stockpiled in barrels at three locations in the Libyan desert south of Tripoli" [http://www.opcw.org/].





26 September 2011


The Yellow Cake

The discovery of a large quantity of yellowcake (a concentrate of uranium ore) in the Libyan town of Sabha has shocked observers. The radioactive material can be used in the production of nuclear weapons, and was found unguarded. Tony Birtley toured the warehouse where the milled powder is stored.


yellow cake (nuclear material) found in Sabha

yellow cake (nuclear material) found in Sabha

Nuclear material found at the same site, apparently unprotected (unguarded).




The Telegraph

The Telegraph says British officials were taken to visit a secret Libyan chemical weapons palnt in Tripoli months before Tony Blair visited Libya, where he agreed a series of lucrative trade deals with Gaddafi. 

Andy Oppenheimer, editor of Chemical and Biological Warfare Review, said:

"Libya clearly did develop chemical weapons. There was a load of mustard gas and blistering agent that was being destroyed under the terms of the Chemical Weapons Convention, but there are now fears that the Libyans are lying and that they have stocks which haven't been declared. A spokesman for the OPCW declined to comment on the leaked cable.  Libya is estimated to have 13.6 metric tonnes of sulphur mustard and 556 metric tonnes of CW precursor chemicals by the OPCW.

  • http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/africaandindianocean/libya/8435526/WikiLeaks-British-officials-toured-Libyan-chemical-weapons-lab-months-before-Tony-Blair-visit.html

  • http://www.globalsecurity.org/wmd/world/libya/rabta.htm

  • http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/wikileaks-files/libya-wikileaks/8294844/U.K.-VISIT-TO-RABTA-CHEMICAL-WEAPONS-PRODUCTION-FACILITY.html

  • http://voices.washingtonpost.com/spy-talk/2011/02/libyas_poison_gas_unaffected_b.html

  • Libya: Col Gaddafi still has quarter of chemical weapons stockpile

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/africaandindianocean/libya/8481250/Libya- Col-Gaddafi-still-has-quarter-of-chemical-weapons-stockpile.html



UK Visit To Rabta Chemical Weapons Production Facility:

Passed to the Telegraph by WikiLeaks 9:36PM GMT 31 Jan 2011



Libyan chemical weapons stockpile intact: inspectors:

From: http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/11/04/us-libya-weapons-idUSTRE7A33RO20111104
04 November 2011:










Gaddafi's Speeches


"The Benghazi Massacre"

Published 17 March 2011 19:43

Muammar Gaddafi addressed the residents of Benghazi late on Thursday, warning them of an impending military operation during which "no mercy" will be shown to any opposition fighters who refuse to lay down their weapons. He also said that if citizens laid down their arms (at minute 03:33 of the video), then they have his "amnesty" and protection. This was interpreted to mean no mercy for the whole people of Benghazi – the "massacre of Benghazi".


Muammar Gaddafi's speech; Thursday 17 March 2011.

Gaddafi addressed the residents of Benghazi late on Thursday, warning them of an impending military operation during which "no mercy" will be shown to rebel fighters who refused to lay down their "weapons".

He also said that if they laid down their arms (at minute 03:33 of the video), then they have his "amnesty" and protection. This was interpreted to mean no mercy for the whole city and thus the so-called "massacre of Benghazi".


There was no reference to killing unarmed civilians or massacring Benghazi anywhere in his entire speech. Note that he also urged the Libyans to not surrender their honour to Qatar.

A year after Gaddafi's murder Libyans across the state of Libya were burning Qatari flags, and by 2017 Saudi Arabia, Egypt and UAE cut all relations with Qatar which they classified as terror-sponsoring state. It emerged later that Qatar and Turkey were funding militia groups aligned with the Muslim Brotherhood and Qaida (see GNA for more on this).


gaddafi addresses  Benghazi

This is what al-Jazeera wrote on the screen during Gaddafi's speech: "Gaddafi tells Benghazi residents "we are coming tonight & there will be no mercy"". Now this sentence is misleading because it implies that there will be no mercy for the whole residents of Benghazi, whereas, as we heard above, there was no such threat to the people of Benghazi - he was specifically talking to criminals and terrorists who are carrying illegal weapons according to Libyan law at the time.

Making war-decisions based on an imaginary situation from the future based on exaggerated allegations should not warrant the total destruction of Libya's infrastructure without an exit strategy. This gross "misrepresentation" of truth was pointed out by Alan J. Kuperman, a professor at the University of Texas, in this interview: https://youtu.be/j02uvYMKbh4 . Hence, some political analysts asked: "is this the "WMD" of Libya?"

In 2015, when the damage has been well established, questionable reports began to emerge. For example, on the 28th of January 2015 The Washington Times published an article titled: "Exclusive: Secret tapes undermine Hillary Clinton on Libyan war", in which one learns that American officials told The Washington Times "that Mrs. Clinton’s strong advocacy for intervention against the Libyan regime rested more on speculative arguments of what might happen to civilians than on facts reported from the ground" [1]. But wait a minute, haven't we been told that the decision was the UN's decision to protect the Libyans by bombing them back to the savage age? And good morning; why 2015?

Apparently, according to this report we are led to believe that the American government was misled to effect war based on misguided information propounded by 3 American women, despite the fact that many Libyans including government officials were warning the UN and its military allies of the foreign radicals being armed by some of the countries they authorised to bomb Libya.

The notion that they were "misguided" is also questionable because if like the report says that the Pentagon and the Intelligence Community were worried that, "Mrs. Clinton was selling the war on exaggerated pretenses" [1], why then bomb a sovereign country without having the facts on the table, why reject the exit strategy proposed in Istanbul, and why leave the country so soon once destroyed and without protecting the civilians the UN resolution called-for?

Why leave so soon without protecting the civilians the country was destroyed for? In fact the reckless actions of the UN had placed the Libyan civilians in greater danger than ever before in Libya's entire history. This would lead to conclude that it is not easy to reconcile this tragedy with simple misguided speculation; and like the New York Times had said, "We will probably never get to have a meaningful discussion about this, as long as we are tantalized by theories about conspiracies or political malfeasance" [2].

[1] washingtontimes.com/news/2015/jan/29/hillary-clinton-libya-war-genocide-narrative-rejec/
[2] nytimes.com/2013/05/14/opinion/the-deeper-blame-for-benghazi.html?pagewanted=2&_r=4&emc=eta1


See our UN page for more on Gaddafi's response to the UN's no-fly-zone.


Gaddafi Speech At The So-Called UN

Gaddafi's speech at the UN, in which he pointed out a number of valid criticisms of the organisation's role and its involvement in wars across the glob. For example, Gaddafi says the charters says we are all equal; but he asks: are we equal when it come to the veto or the permanent seats? Even though the speech is very long, it is well-worth listening to for those who really want to know what the UN is all about.


Gaddafi's 70 minute speech at the UN in September 2009,
where he attacked the foundation of the UN and criticised its charter.

With English interpretation










Ammunition Bunkers


According to the statistics published by The Guardian a staggering 409 "ammunition storage sites" were attacked by the UN-authorised forces, including 41 sites in Zintan alone? Many of these bunkers are massive, with roads inside them for lorries that once brought in the endless stockpiles of western and eastern weapons supplied to Gaddafi throughout his 42-year reign!?

According to local reports from Zuwarah, one storage facility near al-Assah was attacked but left undamaged and unguarded. Rebels from Zuwarah and, once the news leaked out, from Nafusa and Misrata were loading their trucks and lorries with weapons and ammunition for three days, and three nights, non-stop, before the storage rooms were emptied clean. Sites like these were reported from all over Libya; and in fact the UN spoke of weapons and missiles being smuggled out of Libya (presumably they saw them from the air) and repeatedly "urged" the NTC to bring the situation under control. "Let the pigeons loose and run beneath", one Libyan metaphor says.

But then how could the NTC be expected to control the bunkers or the spread of weapons when the western and southern regions of Libya were then still under Gaddafi's control?

Why attack such dangerous sites and leave them unguarded when Libya's government is being destroyed and its borders are left wide open?

Where is the responsibility to protect the civilians from such dangers?

What about the terror groups that are allowed to establish control in the country?

If the UN had evidence that weapons were then being sent out of the country why then let them get away?

And why declare liberation when fighting and shelling civilian homes were still going on across Libya – to this day?

Why did the various Libyan transitional governments leave the contents of such dangerous dumps unguarded, while at the same time leaving the borders unsecured and exploited by outlaws and mystery cells?

Are these questions for the elected (and the so-called responsible) leaders to endorse before hand or are they for ordinary people to needlessly endure afterwards?

Now we know that many of these weapons have somehow "crawled" their way into Tunisia, Niger, Mali, Nigeria, Algeria, Egypt, Gaza, Syria and beyond – presumably a UN-kind-of-program to weaponise the whole region with free Libyan weapons, by "mistake", of course!

The final twist is that according to Reuters, who visited some of these sites after the so-called liberation day (on November 2011), the bunkers were still unguarded by the NTC:

"At another, larger ammo dump near Libya's second-largest city Benghazi, a single fighter stood guard over a tract of land dotted with bunkers stretching as far as the eye could see"
[Style of text is not original.]

One can also presume that it was (and still is) the sole duty of the UN to protect and guard such places in order to guarantee the promised "protection of civilians" because they constitute more danger than Gaddafi himself, especially when such danger was non-existent before the imposed bombing campaign!

Nearly 2 years later, MI6 was reported by the Sunday Times to have said that an estimated "one million tons of weaponry" have turned Libya into a "Tesco for world terrorists" – the Tesco of the world’s illegal arms trade; and that this amount of weaponry is "more than the entire arsenal of the British Army".

If such devastating data and damn dumps (in their hundreds) were known from November 2011 (and even long before then, since they were targets), why has no one done anything about them then and ever since?

Doing something about them in advance would have been truly beneficial to Libya and to the whole region – at least to prevent such sophisticated weapons from "crawling" into the wrong countries.


See February 17 page for more on the international operation to arm Libyan civilians and radical groups with free Libyan weapons.

Was Gaddafi installed to build this so-called "Tesco" for later to use?






gaddafi poster

One striking feature of the Gaddafi regime is Gaddafi's posters.

Massive boards portraying stylish images of Gaddafi are to be found across the country, almost everywhere.



The Berbers Under Gaddafi's Rule

The issue of human rights in Libya is best summarised by the Libyan constitution itself, which clearly states under Article 1 of Chapter 1 [The State] that “Libya is an Arab country” and that “the Libyan people are part of the Arab nation.” This problem is affecting all Arab countries and therefore is not limited to Gaddafi's regime alone.

The reality, of course, is that the native Libyans are not Arabs but are Berbers (or Imazighen), who despite being the natives of Libya still campaign to this day for their full human and constitutional rights, the right to "identity" and the right to speak & write Tamazight – denied to them by Article 2; which further declares “Arabic is its official language”, just as it was denied to them by the recent NTC, GNC, HoR and the UN-imposed PC's GNA.

Hence, the first demand of the Libyan Tamazight Congress calls for “The official inclusion of Tamazight constitutionally as part of the Libyan national identity and national culture.”

In his speech in August 1971 Gaddafi declared those who did not believe the Berbers are "the true and original Arabs" are “liars", and that the language called the Berber language is a Himyaritic Language – very much like what the IRCAM's agent was reported to have said last year in Yemen.

Of course, the Berbers are the indigenous inhabitants of North Africans, while the Arabs invaded North Africa only in the seventh century AD, and it remains a fact that Berber language is Hamitic in origin, and not Himyaritic. Hamitic languages are the source of all Semitic languages including Hebrew and Arabic; and hence Gaddafi himself was reported to have said:  "Berber language is the original Arabic language".

On the  15th of  April 1973 Gaddafi arrived in the Berber coastal town of Zuwarah to deliver his historic speech, in which he had declared the Berber identity as "the enemy of the revolution", and distributed weapons to the Arab people in his “weaponising the people” program.

Ever since, whenever a chance came his way he verbally attacked the Berbers and the Berber identity as a relic of imperialism, instigated to divide and rule the (newly-created) Arab world. In one speech, he said: "Berberism, what is Berberism; there is no Berberism".


The Persecution of the Tebo People

Like the native Berbers, the Tebo were also persecuted by the Gaddafi regime. According to the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights [1],   in December 2007 the Libyan Government withdrew citizenship from members of the Tebo group because they were treated as foreigners who came from Chad; and that the local authorities issued decrees barring the Tebo from access to education and health care services. The sufferings of the Tebo people under the dictatorial regime of Gaddafi included bulldozing dozens of Tebo homes in 2009; the people who refused to move from their houses were beaten by security officials. The report goes on to state that no alternative housing was proposed to the victims of the forced evictions. For more on the Tebo people of Libya please see our page the Libyan people.

[1] lib.ohchr.org/HRBodies/UPR/Documents/Session9/LY/A_HRC_WG.6_9_LBY_3_Libya.pdf








Saif's Democratic Reforms


Saifalislam Alqaddafi was the man behind the promised reforms to transform Libya into a new and democratic country and open it for foreign investment and tourism. Improvements in tourism, movements across the borders, free trade zones, and the media were visible and seemed to had had a good start.

According to Saifalislam, as reported by The Australian [theaustralian.com.au/travel/news/gaddafi-son-says-future-in-free-votes/story-e6frg8ro-1225884933993], Libya does not need a "great leader" and that the Libyan military regime should give way to democracy. Instead the people need elected managers and not kings or princes, he said.

It was also said that conservative members of the Libyan government had openly opposed his reforms for democracy and thus his vision for New Libya dragged on for years without ever seeing the light. 

Unfortunately, according to the academician who met Saif while he was studying democracy in London, Saif was met by two choices: reforms or his father, and he chose his father. After the start of the February Unrest he told journalists that:

"Plan A: live and die in Libya.
 Plan B: live and die in Libya.
 Plan C: live and die in Libya

However, it emerged later that Gaddafi was always surrounded by foreign spies (including Libyan double agents) whose duty, it seemed, was to sabotage his vision of  a new political model for free and democratic Libya. Libya's destiny, it seemed, is dictated by foreign intruders whose vision of Libya is that of violence, chaos and radical militias.

Unfortunately (for him and for the whole of Libya) Saifalislam continued to talk about the reforms he had in mind for nearly ten years without being able to break free from his father's dictatorship. In 2011 (when bombs fell) he realised that Libya was indeed a "piece of cake".


Libya Lifts Its Visa Ban On Americans:

5 May 2010

In the final years before the bombing of Libya began, a number of important changes took place (see Timeline tab in the above green menu). One of these changes is the restoration of Libyan visa for Americans. The government said the changes would allow visitors from many countries to visit Libya and see for themselves the new changes planned ahead for "New Libya": the "Free Libya".

At the American University in Cairo Saifalislam was reported to have said that “very, very soon, it will be very easy for many people around the world to visit Libya” (oealibya.com/front-page/world-news/17572-2010-05-18-17-59-46).

Of course Libyan officials at the time, like today's installed (moderate and radical) leaders, appeared naive to believe politics anything other than deceit.




But soon, very, very soon, it will be very easy for many people around the world to visit Libya.








The Gold Dinar


One of the ideas Gaddafi had was the introduction of an African single currency called the "Gold Dinar". According to his plans Libya would seize to trade in all other currencies (including the US dollar) and instead trade in the gold dinar. Libya's staggering 143 tons of gold reserves would be used to create the currency.

It was reported by various analysts that the gold dinar would greatly affect the world's economy and make it harder for the superpowers to control emerging economies, and therefore would benefit African nations out of poverty.

According to Gaddafi's idea African  countries would use the gold dinar to purchase oil and other commodities instead of using the US dollar and other world currencies. Such an idea, according to some media outlets, would shift the planet's economic balance.

Hence, it was reported that the reason for going to war against Libya was not the protection of civilians but the protection of French (and other) interests in the region because the Libyan gold dinar would pose a threat to the French franc (CFA) currently used in many African countries. 

On the other hand, other sources say the real reason for bombing Libya (and destabilising many other countries in the region) has nothing to do with neither oil nor gold, and that these reasons were fed into the media to divert attention from the grand job to depopulate the planet.

The only way to find who is correct is to look around and see what is going on. For a start the Libyan civilians are now placed in greater danger than in any other time in Libya's entire history, and yet the UN says it ordered the bombing of Libya to protect civilians.

It is not what people say that matters but what they do and, of course, the results of their actions. How could they hide the results when they were the implied objective? To get around this dilemma is simple: the Libya job was a "unintended mistake", some said. A "troubled foray", others added. An "expedition" of the British ; etc, etc.