Taos Amrouche (Ṭaweṣ A'meroush);
the Goddess of Kabyle Song.
(4 March 1913 - 2 April 1976)
Her first album: Chants berbères de Kabylie (1966)
a powerful collection of traditional songs that ignited the (Berber music) revolution.
The Mazigh word for music is "muziget",
as in "muziget Tmazight" ('Berber music'). The etymology of muziget is
still debated, but its derivation from 'music' is possible as well as
questionable, since we have other Berber terms that appear to be related to muziget,
like the Tuareg one-stringed instrument imzad,
and mouzgo (an occasion of fun which can be translated
to English as 'masque' and/or 'amusement'); all of which are related to one form
of expression in which song, dance and laughter played an important role in ancient
entertainment. Berber folklore is full of masquerading characters chanting obscure
and masked lore. This brings us to the amusement world of the Muses, and their mosaic work
(see below). The word 'music' is widely believed to have come from Greek mousikê,
in turn from Greek Mousai, the Muses, the goddesses
of poetry, music, laughter, song and dance. Etymologists also derive the word "Amazon" –
the ancient Amazigh & Greek women warriors and priestesses of the Goddess,
from the same source: Muses. And since the Amazons were debatably said to have
come from Libya, a number of Berberists easily lent themselves to link Amazon
with Amazigh. The word music was also identified with 'magic', which would indicate
both the evocative power of music and its divinatory nature – the true and natural
spiritual medium of expression and rite. Some music is truly pure magic.
Did Women Invent Music?
There is strong evidence to suggest that music was invented by women. As we
saw above, the most compelling evidence comes from Greek mythology, in which
women (the muses) were made the goddesses of music and song. Going back
much farther in time, to the Ancient Egyptians period, one also discovers that
music was employed by priestesses in temples and places of worship as a powerful
medium to connect with the sublime aspect of human existence. The sistrum of
Isis wards off the unwanted apparitions of the underworld, in the same way the Imazighen of
today jingle metal jewellery or tin cans to ward off the jinn of the night,
and in the same way the Zulu pound the earth and beat the drums to terrify
the denizens of the underworld – to scare the hell out of them!
Enchanting Ladies of Goddess Isis.
To Taylor (1838), "the Egyptians appear
to have been the earliest people by whom music was cultivated as science. Females
appear to have been the chief musicians." From the delicate texture
of their attire (as shown in the above engraving), the ladies probably
are "of rank", Taylor noted. Regarding the second instrument,
the lyre, he adds that Apollodorus believes it was an Egyptian invention,
and even gives a traditional account to explain the inspiration behind the invention
: a dead tortoise was discovered on the banks of the Nile, with nothing left
of it but (the shell and) the dry nerves and cartilages, which became
sonorous beneath the scorching heat of the sun. As
Thoth floated by, his foot brushed the tortoise to produce the beautiful sound,
to which he was instantly attracted.
As Herodotus informs us, the art of ululation ('aslilu') is a Libyan
art perfected by women, and to this day still is performed only by women in wedding
jubilations and celebrations. The Tuareg musical one-stringed instrument imzad was
played only by women, since time immemorial, with the only element allowed to
join in being the voice of a male soloist.
Young girls eagerly learn to perfect
the prehistoric skill from their mothers, when an imzad project was
created to teach young Tuareg girls the art of playing the (sacred) Imzad, and
to promote Tuareg oral lore via the
"Imzad Hearers" in the Aïr region.
[For more information, please visit: Save the Imzad website at imzadanzad.com].
Rite or sacred music as performed by women in temples, and also probably in
caves as can be deduced from local rock art, could explain why singing was, until
recently, considered the domain of Tamazight women and girls
among the matriarchal Imazighen of North Africa. The only true Tamazight matriarchal
society left today is the Tamasheght society; but even them sadly
have been recently forced to perform a number of patriarchal con-sessions.
Hence it should not surprise us that old-fashioned men in
general had entertained the idea that music and singing are effeminate
arts exclusively belonging to women, as their matriarchal origins and sacred
functions came to be disremembered, but never forgotten. The fathers and the
grandfathers looked with dismay as their sons and grandchildren took the unmanly
art, in a society where old traditions still dictate the norms of behaviour.
Having said this, things have moved on, very fast, and the rise of the Berber
cultural revolution during the second half of the 20th century, coinciding
with Europe's 1960s, saw a number of Berber men taking the guitar and starting
what now seems to be a massive explosion of MazighMusic.
This imzad is played by a Tuareg woman during the festival of Ghadames 2009.
On The Etymology & Origin of The Guitar
The word "guitar" was said to have come from Spanish guitarra,
originally from the Moorish qitara, which is identifiable with Indian jantra (sitar),
Greek kithara, Latin cithara. Whereas the first sound of the
name changes variably from one language to another, the root ending -tar is
constant regardless of language. The root TAR means
'string' in various languages, like African, Semitic, Persian and Indian languages,
as in Berber weter, Arabic water or
Persian tar, and possibly also English cord and thread,
where 'chord' was derived by etymologists from Latin chorda: ('string
of a musical instrument''). Children in Africa still make
guitar-like musical instruments using metal cans or wooden boxes (for the body)
and chords tied tightly across for strings; and therefore the obvious etymology
for guitar is: "a stringed-instrument".
In relation to the shape of the harp (played by the first lady in the above engraving),
Taylor recalled an ancient theory deriving the first "stringed
the "twanging of a bow".
Many of the sciences and inventions introduced from North Africa to Europe
via Spain were labeled as "Arabic" or "Moorish" indiscriminately,
whereas history was specific about the meaning of "Moorish", from Moor,
the Berbers of North Africa, as in ancient Latin Maurus (the 'Berber
inhabitant of Mauritania') [long before the arrival of Arabs in North Africa];
and hence 'morris dance' was rightly said to mean
'Moorish dance' (the 'Berber dance'), via Old French morois ('Moor'). Check
the Berber Keska dance here. It follows then that "Moors"
is more accurate term to use, since it refers to the 'Berbers', the original
invaders of Spain.
It is an undisputed fact that 100% of the army that invaded Spain was Berber, and
was also commanded by the Berber general Tariq Ben Zayyad (whence Gibraltar).
Most of the scientists who were involved in the cultural revival in Spain at
the time of the Andulusian period were of Amazigh origin from ancient Mauritania and Morocco.
The arrival of the guitar in Europe coincided with the Moorish invasion of Spain,
where two guitar-like instruments began to appear in medieval Europe, namely:
the Moorish Guitar (guitarra moresca) and the Latin Guitar (guitarra
latina); indicating that the Latin guitar may have been in use before the
arrival of the Moorish guitar in Spain, and that it could have been introduced
to Europe from Libya via the Greeks or the Romans (see the mosaic guitar below).
The origin of the guitar is not known. The ancient Mazighimzad,
and other similar one-stringed instruments, could provide an evolutionary origin
for multi-stringed instruments, like the modern violin and guitar. Having strings
and of similar shape (body & neck), the guitar's origin must be related to
the same evolution of stringed-instruments.
The above mosaic image comes from Qasr Libya
Museum ('Castle of Libya'), in Eastern Libya (Cyrenaica), and dates to before
the Arab invasions of North Africa. It was stated that the Castle's
history goes back to, at least, the 4th century. It clearly shows a musical
instrument very much like the present guitar, and therefore a proof that
the instrument was in use in Berber North Africa long before
the Arabs arrived in Libya in the 7th century AD.
Following the museum link (above) leads to a bigger image in which it becomes
clear that the Berber one-stringed imzad had by then evolved to have
two strings. Also note the right hand of the player comes from below the guitar,
and not from above as it is played today, which explains the small body the ancient
guitar had, clearly resting on the arm. This body then evolved to become
much bigger (probably to produce better sound), and as a result it is now played
with the hand from above the body. The dog, to say the
least, is bemused by the music of his master. The liquid of music is
left to cool in a clay jar.
It is interesting to note that the word "mosaic" comes from
Latin musaicum ('mosaic work'), in reference to the
sacred and inspirational work of the matriarchal Muses; as it is also interesting
to add that medieval mosaics were often dedicated to the Muses, and thus
the Greek word for "mosaic work" is mouseion.
This means that 'Amazon', 'music', 'mazigh', 'muses', 'mosaic', 'mooriske',
'masque', 'mouzgo', and 'amuse' are all amazingly related, one way or another,
to the Ancient Mediterranean Basin and to one form of expression: sacred art
and ritual dance. The ancient Mediterranean art.
The old days of civilisation!
The Senegalese musician Nuru Kane playing the three-stringed Moroccan bass guimbri,
with the band Bayefall Gnawa. The instrument is also called guembri,
gimbri or ginbri, and consists of three goat-skin strings, wooden
body covered with camel skin (with a small hole), and a stick for a neck. The
shape of the guitar can be compared to the following European version of the
The guitar player (c. 1672), a painting by Johannes Vermeer.
Image from Wikipedia: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Jan_Vermeer_van_Delft_013.jpg
6 Strings (3 x 2)
The three-stringed guitar, at some time in history, doubled its strings to
produce the common six-stringed guitar.
Politically speaking, the Imazighen until recently were denied the use of
their language in most forms of culture and expression. But traditionally, they
have kept their music alive and very well for thousands of years, as it is a
fundamental pillar of Berber life, religious ceremonies and festivities, like
marriage ceremonies, seasonal festivals, agricultural calendars, and even during
mourning and death; where the ancient mourning ceremony described by Herodotus
still invokes fear in the hearts of many men, who attempted in vain to suppress
this most ancient and unique practice; in which the earth trembles beneath the
pounding feet of distressed women, screaming with shrieking cries in complete
trance, to compensate the loss of beloved ones. Words alone may not suffice
to convey the atmosphere endured by such deeds, and one must hear it first in
order to feel its full magnitude. It certainly did catch the attention of Herodotus,
some 2500 years ago.
The very-long suffering endured by the peaceful Imazighen,
either due to the continuous onslaught of "exemplary political leadership" or
as a result of the "hardship of life" under the bare minimum, is a
vital component of Berber song; rich in "emotional sonority", folklore,
ancient traditions, comedy, rhythmic patterns, jubilant ululations, and the
pounding drums calling the ancestors from the underworld; composed together to
produce a new type of entertainment that not only carries the heritage forward
but also entertains the soul and makes the mind momentarily happy and free of
tense. Berber music is essentially social, joyful and spiritually sacred.
In addition to being sacred, entertaining and traditionally informative, Berber
music is also infused with political forces to convey the current state of persecution,
where in a number of occasions masquerades the surrounding "triviality" so
much becoming "intricate order"; particularly the powerfully hypnotic
song of the Tuareg, extending one's
sorrows to the distant horizon of
"Mother Sahara", where reality and mirage perform in unison - the obfuscating
twilight zone of people without identity or country but 'soul' and 'jazz'
Where no other forms of Berber expression were encouraged to flourish, and
even barred, passionate Berber poetry and music provided the mortal soul with
compassion and companionship. Music is something you hear through your ears but
the mind signals to all the organs and the senses powerful emotional signals
that heal throughout the body and the mind, that made music where it
is today: nearly in every household on the planet.
Berber’s shining star: Hamid Chereit, known worldwide as Idir:
“At a time when many epidemics were raging, new-born babies were called Idir
to ward off bad luck; I chose it as a tribute to my culture.”
I remember the 1970s in Libya when we had only music tapes and records of
Ṭaweṣ A'meroush, Idir and Imazighen Imula as a source of information
about the Imazighen of Algeria and Morocco. Idir's vivid vocal imagery, evoked
from Berber mythology, made his album A Vava Inou Va (1976) a great
hit in Libya, and still stands alone among other forms of Berber song, far
more complex than the triviality popularised by common pop culture. While Ferhat's
revolutionary power had inspired many Berberists to take a more active role
in the new revolution then sweeping North Africa - still the peaceful revolution.
Where the press and other media were suppressed, music conveyed the word with
ease across the borders of segmented North Africa. Hence It was illegal
to possess Tamazight music at the time in Libya, and so listening to forbidden
Berber music underground added the benefit of another dimensional excitement.
[The Imazighen group of Morocco and UK's Pink Floyd
were also popular in 1970s Libya.]
Tuareg, "Les Chasseurs De Lumières", Idir, 1993.
Berber (Amazigh) Music Websites
the site of the Kabyle singer Abdelli.
music at geneticmusicproject.com - biologist, musicians and software
designers have created a program that gives musical voice to DNA. The site links
to various sites from which raw genetic data can be downloaded as the basis for
listen to what the Big Bang sounded like billions of
years ago at staff.washington.edu/seymour/BigBangSound_2.wav).
Listen to music:
listen to Libyan music from Nafousah Mountain and Zuwarah.
lists Berber musicians by category: Tuareg, Kabyle, Rifi, etc. Created on 19/03/2000.
Dania (Itrinny: Itri'nny, Emghnasn), Zuwarah.
Lead vocal: Dania; melody by: Dania & Tarek; back vocal: Arwa, Ania, Rana,
Ritaj, Tarek Amran, Aksel & Elyas; produced and arranged by Andrey Andreyevic,
Andrey Art Studio, 2011.
Libyan singer Dania and Idir, Parc de Vincennes Concert,
Ghasro: Berber music group from Nalut: youtube-nocookie.com/BXXTBGk3mlg
Bendeq (A Tayri A Tamort, 2008), Zuwarah:
Kessas: Berber music group, members: Ramzi NL Ghali, Bendeq
Bendeq and Aalin Amansouri. See Ossan (below).
Ossan: Berber music group from Zuwara, members: Ramzi NL
Ghali, Read Almansouri, Aalin Amansouri, and Ausman Ben khalifa. Ossan playing
in Benghazi's First Libyan Tamazight Song Festival : youtube-nocookie.com/itv4fLRMKKg
Ftis (Imazighen), Zuwarah.
Algerian Berber Musicians & Music Groups
Meksa, Anz'ar ('Rain').
Meksa was a Berber activist and a singer who dominated early 1970s Algeria
with his unique music, rich in mythology and folklore, as in the above rain
ceremony. The artist died on the 31st of October 1988, at the age of 34. No
doubt, still remembered as one of the heroes of the Berber Cultural Revolution
Ferhat Mehenni (Imazighen Imula)
Lounis Mohand Ameziane
Mazryah (Taziri) Soltani
The unique music of Ferhat (Imazighen
Imula) is infused with strong political messages and rich in oral traditions.
*Wikipediatists say that his, "song acts like the newspaper or political
speeches in European societies". Among the Berbers he is a pioneer
and "romantic" revolutionary.
Among the albums he produced are:
Tuγac n ddkir - Songs of steel, love and liberty (1994)
Tuγac n tmes d waman - Songs of Fire and Water (1996 and 2001)
You can listen to most of the above musicians at: www.rifmusic.8m.com/. According
to this website, Mimoun el-Walid is the king of the Rif Amazigh music, most successful,
and most controversial artist of the Rif region, in Northern Morocco.
"Imazighen" music group (1970s): rare Moroccan Berber music band.
The Moroccan group "Imazighen", not to
be confused with the Algerian "Les Imazighen", is one of the best ever
Berber music groups to emerge to date. They were very popular in the 1970s for
their hypnotic melodies and powerful rhythms that made them truly unique. Unfortunately,
they appear to have disappeared, as no information about them is to be found
anywhere, not even in Youtube (unless they are under a different name). The quality
of the above track is not brilliant, as it comes from an old tape, but still
well worth listening to. Please let us know if you know anything about them or
about any links leading to information about them.
Update (November 2014):
On the 31st of October 2014 we received an email with further
information regarding the Imazighen group. We now know that they do exist
in Youtube under the name "groupe
imazighen" (with the Berber name being "Tarebbout Imazighen" [Tarebbut
the disappearnce of the group was due to staying 30 years in exile. In another
interview one learns that
initially the name of the group was "Nas
People) before it was changed to "Imazighen" (The Berbers).
Please check the following url's for further information:
Khemisset is the capital city of the Zemmour province in Morocco.
Maydas Gigh Iwsmoun
Berber folk-art singer and songwriter Rouicha
was born in Khnifera on the 1st of January 1950. Using his deep voice and the "Ouatar" instrument
(similar to the Moroccan Oud) his music conveys a nostalgic and powerful
emotional atmosphere reminiscent of the Berber mountains - the mythological burden
seemingly Atlas endures for eternity. He died on the 17th of January 2012 in
A Berber Tuareg music group that started their carrier performing at weddings
and traditional occasions. For some reason the group joined a
military training camp in Gaddafi's Libya where they ended up being dragged
into armed conflict. Soon afterwards they abandoned their guns and
instead embraced the Sahara's stars with tunes that tunnel down the line with
more devastating effects than 'bloodshed'. Their songs carried political messages calling
for greater human rights for the nomadic people of the Sahara; eventually leading
to their music being banned in Mali and Algeria. Even this year, 2011, the
Canadian government denied them visa to perform in one of the festivals held
there. To have the courage to defeat war one needs to abandon the instruments
of violence for vocal vibrations the ear is destined to hear, before they
dissipate fear into thin air. The powerfully hypnotic Tuareg Song; the magical imzad;
the voices of the ancestors; Mataraden
Anexant of The Rapid Tisdas; the transcendental tunes
that put Berber music on the map; etc.
Mataraden Anexan,Tinariwen: The Rapid
Tinariwen: The Radio Tisdas sessions (CD, 2001)
Tinariwen: Amassakoul (CD, 2004)
Tinariwen: Aman iman (CD, 2007)
Tinariwen: Tinariwen: Festival Med. Loule Portugal (video, 2007)
Tinariwen: Malmo, Sweden (video, 2007)
Tinariwen: Welcome to the Desert (video, 2007)
Tinariwen: From Live 8 Eden Africa Calling (video, 2007)
Tinariwen: With Vieux Farka Toure (video, 2007)
Tinariwen: Live at Lowlands (video, 2007) video
Tinariwen: Desert Rebel, Live at Paris (video, 2007)
Tinariwen: Desert Rebel, Ishumars (video, 2007)
Tinariwen: Imidiwan (CD, 2009)
Tinariwen: iTunes Live: London Festival '09 (2009)
The power of cultures united against
PFC Band (Playing For Change Band), Glastonbury Festival, 2009;
plus special guests Tinariwen; Francois Viguie; Roberto Luti; Stefano Tomaselli;
the Omagh Community Youth Choir; Vusi Mahlasela; and more.
Agadez (Digital Bonus Version, 2011)
Nomad (2013, produced by Dan Auerbach )
Mahegagh (What Shall I Do), by Bombino
Undoubtedly one of the best ever Tuareg tracks.
Kader Tarhanin Group (photo source:
Kader Tarhanin is a Berber Tuareg music group from the oasis of Tamerasset,
Algeria. One of their best tracks is "Tarhanin Tegla" (see
video below for full lyrics). Web-page: http://kadertarrhanin.weebly.com/;
Tartit is a Berber Tuareg female group from Tumbuktu (Tombouctou), Mali. Mark
Hudson described them as band of "five Junoesque women with copper-sheened
indigo shawls and gold-encrusted hair. They exude a sense of timeless female
resilience . . . theirs is real nomad music, its measured, propulsive rhythms
based on the swaying motion of the camel” (Mark Hudson, Telegraph
Magazine, 28 June 2003).
Tartit: Amazagh (CD, 1997)
Tartit: Ichichila (CD, 2000)
Tartit: Abacabok (CD, 2007)
Tartit: Desert Blues Project (video, 2007)
Tartit: Interview with Tartit, FMM Festival (video, 2007)
Tartit: Muezzin From Tartit (video, 2007)
Tartit: Tartit with band Afel Bocoum, Prague (video, 2007)
The Etran Finatawa band is a unique music group from Niger,
made up of five artists: three Wodaabe-Fulani musicians and two Tuareg artists,
bringing together two closely-related Saharan cultures, to share the same
environment, its pastures and scarce water resources. Likewise, the music
styles of the two groups were fused together to create a new kind of musical
style of "Nomad Blues". In 2009 Ghalitane
Ghamidoune departed the group and set up another music group: Kel
Guefan, also made up of Fulani, Woodabe and Tuaraeg artists.
Berber Music Festivals
Libya's First Tamazight Song Festival: (15
December 2011, Benghazi): the festival was organised in association with Libya
Channel and Free Libya Association. Attended Libyan Berber bands include: Ossan,
Tindi, Ghasro, and Mhamed Qlou.
The Tuareg Festival in the Desert (festival-au-desert.org) was
conceived in Timbuktu, following the Tuareg peace displacement, others call accord,
symbolised by burning their weapons in 1996; the French band Lo’Jo and Tuareg
Tinariwen were among those who helped hatch the notion of the festival. The
festival is a 3 day international music event, celebrating Tuareg culture and
way of life. The festival takes place in Mali, in the oasis Essakane, located
about 70 kilometres northwest of the legendary Timbuktu: clean sand dunes, tents,
camels, and a concrete stage built onto the sand. Most of the festival's attendees
are Tuareg nomads who arrive on their dignified camels from all over the Sahara.
A truly fantastic opportunity to hear and experience Berber music at its best.
The festival comprises about 45 acts, embodying traditional and contemporary
music from all over Mali and from neighbouring countries, like Niger and Mauritania.
The first festival, held in 2001, was interrupted by Tuareg fighters who had
not accepted the peace accord; the second one was ruined by a sandstorm; and
the third festival was attended by the Malian culture minister, the American
ambassador, Robert Plant (the former Led Zeppelin vocalist), and the Berber stars
and groups Afel Bocum, Ali Farka Toure, Oumou Sangare,
Tarbiat, Tartit, Takoumbawt and Tinariwen.
Agadir: Nomad Berber music, Agadir, Morocco.
Ghat Festival: Tuareg festival in Ghat, Fezzan,
Ghadames Festival: Ghadames International
Festival, usually held in October in the oasis of Ghadames in Libya, is a
colourful event in which people gather together to celebrate, sing and dance.
A celebration of local Berber Tuareg culture.
Sabeiba Festival in Djanet, Algeria.
Takubelt Festival Tuareg Festival in Mali.
Cure Salee Festival in the oasis of In-Gall,
Shiriken Festival in Akoubounou, Niger.
Festival on the Niger (festivalsegou.org)
is a unique 4-day music festival, which will be held in Segou, by the banks of
the River Niger, also in Mali, at the end of January 2009. Segou is the capital
of the ancient Bambara kingdom, and is the region of traditional music and dance.
The festival program features traditional and contemporary music, dance, tales,
legends, masks, huge puppets, traditional crafts expositions, and sculpture and
jewellery. The theme of the 2009 festival is
The International Festival of the Sahara at Douz (festivaldouz.org.tn),
in Tunisia, is a 4-day music and dance festival, celebrating the culture of desert
at the heart of the Tunisian sahara, in the small Berber oasis town of Douz.
Sydney Festival (Australia): the fist Amazigh
Festival in Sydney was held on the 16th of May 2009, organised by Amazigh Association
Amzad, Imzad, Anzad, Inzad: Tuareg one-stringed
violin- or guitar-like instrument, played only by women.
Fadangama: Tuareg small monocord instrument for
Odili: Tuareg flute made from trunk of sorghum.
Gidga: Tuareg small wooden instrument with "iron
sticks to make strident sounds".
Tende: Tuareg a small drum or a tambour covered
Ginbri, Gimbri: Moroccan stringed instrument with long
Taqes'bayet: flute, literally 'a cane'.
Et'bel: round drum covered with skin, placed on
the sand, and hit with two sticks while sitting down.
Denget: small round drum placed under the arm while
hung with a string over the shoulder, and played with one stick and one hand
Tishekwet, Tabez'baz't: zukra:
bagpipe, also played while dancing with the drummers.
Libyan Denget, hit with one stick and one hand.
Music Styles, Dance & Genre
Ahwash: Moroccan village music.
Takamba: a musical genre characteristic for its
Gudra: ancient dance, performed by women.
Tasikisikit: songs: sung by women.
Asak: songs accompanied by imzad.
Tahengemmit: slow songs sung by elder men
Bellulla: songs made by children playing with the
Raiss: combination of poerty, song, comedy and dance.
Tagest: dance performed seated by moving the head,
hands and shoulders.
Ewegh: dance performed by men in couples and groups.
Agabas: dance for modern ishumar 'guitars'.
Meddah'at: women musicians who play violin, praise and sing
Shikhat: women singing traditional music in weddings and
religious festivals and ceremonies.
Tagnawit: Gnawa trans and sufi music.
Izlan: sung poetry from the Atlas Mountains.
The Guedra is an ancient dance performed by Berber
women and accompanied by hand clasping and traditional guedra drum beats.
Nothing else is used. It was said that the ritual during which the dance is performed
ensures blessing for married couples and for the whole tribe, as well as induces
good karma and peace. There are two names for this dance: the Guedra ritualistic
dance starts with a woman covered with a black veil dancing on her knees. But
she stands up when she is performing the T'bel or T'bal dance
(which is also a name of particular 'drum'). Moving slowly with the hands gesturing
east and west, the rhythm develops to more complex compositions, expressed by
the hands as they emerge beneath the veil.