• February Uprising
  • Arming Civilians
  • War Statistics
  • War Updates
  • Federalism
  • Black Crescent






The February Operation


sign saying no to arms and yes to the law



How Did The February Uprising Start?

The peaceful February protests in Libya were started by women and children on the 15th of February 2011. For forty two years the Libyans have been trying in vain to break free from Gaddafi's dictatorial grip, but somehow the events always succeed to circumvent. Eventually, three key events have manifested to trigger the uprising that has finally invited foreign military intervention to end Gaddafi's reign and send the country back to square one.


Event (1)

During the early days of the uprising in nearby Tunisia Gaddafi announced that Libyans should occupy the empty homes of a certain construction project then still under development; but the Libyans however occupied empty and unfinished homes across the whole country including those without roofs (just concrete columns and floor slabs). This seemed to connect with the events in Tunisia, but Gaddafi instead responded by ordering a curfew on his own forces and gave them strict orders not to intervene.

Mobile communications between Sabha, Benghazi and Tripoli, exchanging information about the latest remaining vacant homes, went silent, and in a matter of days all the empty homes were occupied – just months before protesters in the West began the suppressed "Occupy" movement at home.

The homeless squatters felt happy to camp and wait for solicitors to arrive to assign ownership deeds in their names. They camped for days on end, but no solicitors arrived; and soon afterwards the euphoria faded away, as it usually does. Gaddafi then responded with a $24 billion fund for "housing & development", to water down the events, prevent further events, and please the impoverished population – just as the Saudi king soon afterwards did in response to his suppressed uprising in (still-protected) Arabia!

This initially seemed to work, and the uprising swiftly passed Libya on its way to Egypt; before it bounced back to Benghazi, on time for the next event:



Farah Abushwesha on BBC World News (07 Sep 2011).

Event (2)

The second part of the February Uprising was actually started by peaceful women, and children, on the 15th of February 2011, when they took to the streets of glorious Benghazi protesting about the massacre of their beloved ones who disappeared in Abu Salim Prison in 1996. Lawyer Fathi Turbel, who represented the families of over 1,100 Libyan prisoners who died in the massacre, was arrested on the 15th February 2011. Apparently he was later released by Mr. Sanoussi (Libya's chief of intelligence) on the condition he would return on the following day, but reportedly further demonstrations on the following day prevented him from returning.

Mr. Turbel then became a member of the self-appointed NTC in Benghazi, where he worked as a representative of the youth. Shortly after the premature liberation of Libya, he attracted the attention of the Berbers when he was reported to have made some "anti-Amazigh" remarks regarding the Berbers' demands for constitutional recognition of identity – their own kind of indigenous (still-suppressed) events; ; as he was also said to have "verbally threatened members of the NTC who were calling for Tamazight to be given equal status to Arabic in the draft Libyan constitution."



Event (3)

According to Amnesty International Report mde190252011en, the protest of the 17th of February 2011 is the anniversary of the clashes that took place in Benghazi between the Libyan security forces and the protesters who were attacking the Italian consulate on the 17th of February 2006, when Libya's security forces were said to have been responsible for the death of at least 12 people in a protest which was not calling for political change but simply expressing anger over the "Danish cartoons" printed in Europe. This means that Gaddafi was protecting his foreign guests  from angry protesters. A year later, in 2007, around one dozen activists announced plans to stage a peaceful demonstration in Tripoli to commemorate the tragic "event" originally created by the Danish cartoons, but the Libyan government arrested them and so the event never took place. The activists were eventually given heavy prison terms, ranging from 6 to 25 years, for “attempting to overthrow the political system”, “spreading false rumours about the Libyan regime” and “communicating with enemy powers”. Human rights activists dismissed the charges, which they said were invented by the government to justify the arrest and the heavy sentencing passed. 



(4): The 2011 February War

During the third episode of the popularised uprising, Facebook's designated "Day of Rage" literally exploded into full revolt, seeing the streets covered with anti-Gaddafi graffiti, "opened" military bases emptied of weapons, and government offices, police stations and vehicles set on fire; with the government responding with more fire, snipers and tanks. In a matter of days, the peaceful uprising swiftly grew into a gruesome rebellion, where protesters and foreign infiltrators quickly became known as "armed rebels" (متمردون) by the world's media – long before the UN ordered the bombing of Libya to protect its "unarmed civilians".

The Libyan armed protestors however rejected the label "rebels", and instead called themselves "thuwwar" ('revolutionaries'), in an international war authorised by the United Nations, seemingly to prevent an imaginary "massacre". Dictator Gaddafi was specifically warning "armed rebels" (including foreign radicals) to lay down their arms – just as the NTC did in 2012; just as the GNC did in 2013; and just as the HoR still does in 2014, urging rebels, militias and the installed terrorists to surrender their (given) arms. Gaddafi even promised "amnesty" for those who laid down their weapons, but the UN and its top leaders were openly mistranslating "amnesty" as "massacre".

Nonetheless, the devastating UN-authorised war on Libya, Africom's first war in Africa, involved 18 countries, representing nearly 50 countries from three world unions: the United States of America, the European Union, and the mostly-dictatorial Arab League. Germany, Russia, China, Brazil and South Africa somehow preferred to hang in between, as if straight "yes" or "no" is not substantial-enough to not-abstain!

Roaming Libya's sovereign sky, allegedly in hunt of "command & control centres", UN-mandated forces blasted 26,000 sorties, 9,600 missile strikes, and 5,900 bombing missions; reportedly destroying government infrastructure, pulverising military convoys, obliterating the Libyan army (now badly needed), bombing Libya's TV station, in which 3 journalists were killed and around 20 more were injured (despite the Security Council Resolution 1738 (2006) condemning acts of  violence against peaceful journalists during conflict), and even a desolate camel caravan south of Sebha was 'taken'.

Many Libyans were shocked by the scale of the military campaign and exclaimed: "we only asked for a no-fly zone"; while the president of the dictatorial Arab League expressed his shock on the following day, but by the evening he was brought back to the table by dedicated diplomacy. The Libyan rebel interim prime minister, Mr. Mahmoud Jibril, was reported to have made it clear to European leaders that the no-fly zone should not include any military intervention nor boots on the ground; while the self-appointed NTC stated in its manifesto "to fulfil its obligations to protect the Libyan people . . . without any direct military intervention on Libyan soil."

In reality, of course, the UN-authorised bombing of Libya was complemented by "special" boots on the ground including British SAS, CIA, General-Advisors, Special Forces, as well as war generals from dictatorial states, reportedly coordinating the opposition forces, "training rebel groups", and pin-pointing target coordinates for pilots in the sky; when Resolution 1973 specifically excludes any "foreign occupation force of any form on any part of Libyan territory".  Apparently using local rebels as soldiers not only saves money but also "wins popularity at home".

It was also reported that Apache helicopters were used to take out targets on the ground; and that "retreating" convoys were seemingly pulverised in violation of resolution 1973's Article 4, which specifically calls for protecting civilians "under threat of attack". Hence it was no secret to Lord Dannatt that "the mission under UNHCR 1973 is . . . to protect people but of course the implied task . . . is the removal of Colonel Gaddafi".

Unfortunately, the consequential results were total infestation of Libya with sophisticated weapons, outlaw militias, foreign radicals, terror groups, and the "utter destruction of Libya's entire infrastructure"; making severing its Head sound like heaven.

Picking up the pieces, the NTC estimated the extensive devastation will require no less than ten years of intensive restructure to get back on its [amputated] feet; while bankers, hungry as ever, quickly calculated the damage will require no less than $400,000,000,000 to put back the way it was before the UN-authorised violent events.

2011 February War Casualties

It was initially reported that at least 30,000 Libyans were slaughtered during the UN bombing campaign, and a staggering 50,000 were wounded, 20,000 of whom were seriously injured. But fifteen months later, the newly-created Libyan Ministry of Martyrs & Missing Persons has reduced the figure of dead rebels down to 4,700; before Dr. E'sam Zerieq (a technical manager at the Martyrs Ministry) finally confirmed the total number of martyrs to be 5,517. It seems evidence inventing "such figures" are good for venting further conflictive events!

Nearly 500,000 Libyans fled their homes to Tunisia  within one year due to the effects of war, and to the combined events created by the imposed harsh sanctions and the scorching heat of the Libyan Sun. More than 150,000 Libyans were displaced from their homes including the entire population of  "black" Tawergha, due to "seeded" revenge and the brutal humanrights violations endured in the name of 'Freed Libya'.

The scale of the effected social disaster (or the implied, unintentional objectives) is beyond belief: first of all the disappearance of the law is followed by chaos and more violence against civilians; morality down the drain; human right abuses and torture flourished; robbers and criminals still roam across Libya's borders unhampered; financial corruption in billions; trafficking in "humans", arms, suicidal Tramadol and narcotics rocketing to the sky; crime shooting up by 500% (including looting, car-jacking and murder); archaeological robberies & vandalism still thriving in the open; violation of women and holy shrines became part of the so-called "revolution against tyranny"; the disrespect of the old generation by the euphoric teenagers of the latest revolution; and of course the entire infrastructure of the country is audaciously destroyed in the name of protection & change that never see the light.

In addition to the physical damage, the UN "violent events" had a devastating effect on the mental health of hundreds of thousands of  (protected) Libyan civilians. Researchers at Queensland University (UQ) have predicted that 123,200 Libyans may suffer from severe PTSD (post-traumatic stress disorder), and more than 220,000 are predicted to have 'severe depression' as a direct result of being exposed to a high level of political terror and traumatic events. By 2015 the UN was eager to inform the world that 2.4 million Libyan civilians are in need of further protection as a direct result of its bombing campaign without an exit strategy.

To water down the catastrophe the Libyans were told by some foreign diplomats that freedom is "untidy" and that change will take time; but three years later the Danish Dignity Report revealed that around a third of the Libyan population suffer from mental problems; 11 percent of Libyans "have been arrested", half of whom have been tortured; 20% of households had a family member disappeared; 30% reported "depression"; 44% of Libyans needed health and medical assistance; 46% are insecure "about the future"; 56% are insecure about "life right now"; 61% suffer from "preoccupation with the collapse of the country"; and 63% suffer from "preoccupation with political instability". Our own unpublished report shows that 100% of Libyans have been deceived.

The most terrible result of the UN-bombing campaign is the division of Libya into various groups and militias, at the top of which sits the installed radicals; followed by armed rebels; pretend revolutionaries; ousted loyalists; foreign jihadists; federalists; the still-persecuted Berberists; the Tebu; and the marginalised secularists among other victims of  "divide-and-ruin". It is evident from the way the war was orchestrated and from the grotesque murder of Gaddafi (when most Libyans preferred to see "the old man" defend himself before the courts of law) that hatred, revenge and the clash of militias will dictate Libya's future for many years to come!

Hence, it took Libya's chief of the Special Forces two years to realise there was a "conspiracy" to plunge Libya into civil war, with Libya suddenly becoming the centre of world terrorists, complete with the largest arms black supermarket in the world, dubbed a "jihadist wonderland" by US congressman Rand Paul; before the Libyan prime minister Mr. Althni revealed in 2014 that destroying Libya's security infrastructure was a mistake, and that Libya is facing an "anonymous enemy"; determined to destroy our national reconciliation by all necessary measures.

Dear Libyans recognise only the light that made you see in pitch-black darkness, and DO realise that destroying Libya and punishing the peaceful civilians for something they did not instigate can only deliver the exact objective the anonymous enemy has in mind. What is required instead is to figure the way out of the imposed odyssey without swallowing the bait of revenge. 

The only way to defeat the anonymous enemy (regardless of who that is, and no matter how "smart" or powerful it is) is to refuse to fight each other no matter what the UN says – after all, lasting democracy and prosperous peace can never be achieved via violence –– authorised, revolutionised or otherwise radicalised.

Libya's acting President, Dr. Magarief, warned his sons to open their eyes, think before they act, and not to be "pawns on others' chessboard", just before his resignation on the 28th of May 2013, following the "congressional events" that followed the "liberation events" that followed the "violent events" of the fuzzy no-fly zone.

Event after another, the "Engine of  Events" continues to invent more "terror vents" for all of us to pre-vent.

End of UN Military Operations in Libya

On the 3rd of August 2011 the NTC dictated its unjust Constitutional Declaration without any consultation with the Libyan people, in which the Berber natives of Libya were denied official recognition, once more. Followed by Libya itself  being prematurely declared liberated by the self-appointed leaders on the 23rd of October 2011 while the country was still in a state of war, as confirmed a year later by the transitional president Dr. Magarief himself.

On the 31st of October 2011 the United Nations declared an end to its "violent events" in Libya, "with precision", they said, while blasting civilian homes was still going on across the stricken country; audaciously igniting the real massacre of Benghazi with a barrage of assassinations and bombs that continue to this disastrous day. 

Finally, the Libyans were politely told to resolve their "differences on their own", once Libya was destroyed to smithereens, without even unfreezing their frozen funds, and without effecting the illusive & all-inclusive protection of civilians the country was initially destroyed for.

"Still, the deeper question", The New York Times asks,  is why the [UN-authorised forces] believed that "international responsibilities to Libya would end with military action, and that Libya would somehow right itself".

Of course, the more serious question is why is it good to anyone to destroy Libya's entire infrastructure, and attack more than 400 munitions bunkers while leaving their dangerous contents undamaged, unguarded and even free to crawl across Libya's unguarded borders?

How on earth is arming every single Libyan home good for the "protection of civilians"?
Is arming the entire region with Libyan weapons good for the war on terror or just an "un-intentional" error?

Adding salt to injury, on the 24th of November 2013 the so-called UN requested to send an armed force of 235 men to Tripoli to protect its OWN personnel, presumably from the "unarmed civilians" they earlier backed with terrible bombs. One would presume the UN has now forgotten about delivering the promised protection for the Libyan civilians by all necessary measures! Strange but true.



(5): The Fruitful Spring: Stand Up And Enjoy The Fall

The long-term effects of the so-called 'Arab Spring', according to some American analysts, can only be measured in decades and not in years! One would presume the 'spring' to flourish with fruits and exhume a sense of liberty and freedom, but so far even the 'fall' is far from the truth. There are however a number of shocking reports already stating that many impoverished Tunisian and Egyptian workers and women say they are now worse off than before, just as many Libyan Berbers were disappointed to realise the promised 'fruits' of the spring must await further 'delivery'. The effected disaster in Syria is beyond normal speech.

It seems certain that limitations are always there to moderate the promised reforms to suit one's mental needs, for which the Egyptians celebrated the second anniversary of their 'spring' on the 25th of January 2013 with more violent events and calls for a "second revolution", only to be rewarded by the same Egyptian army with a dictatorial military coup which toppled the elected Morsi in June 2013; leading to some neighbours to call the "Arab Spring" the "Arab Game".

No doubt, there are many more categories of people who feel very happy with the so-called revolution that liberated 'them' from military tyranny – ironically by arming them to the teeth. But if democracy is to be fair for all people without distinction, then it must be built on proper foundation, on peace and scientific principles, on free speech, free choice, and economic equality for all women and men of all tribes, classes and faiths. If not, injustice will prevail and future foreign intervention will remain an inevitable possibility in decades to come.

In Libya however the situation was much worse. "Central authority was completely destroyed". Neither Libya nor the world has ever seen anything like it :– nearly every single household in Libya is now armed to the teeth (unlike Gaddafi's "weaponising the people program"). No wonder the Libyans now say, "we used to have one Gaddafi, now we have six million", whichever way you interpret the say!

It has been nearly two years since the war was prematurely-declared "ended" and conflicts still go on between individuals, militias, tribes, outlaws and government forces across Libya; with the addition of the emerging 'mystery cells', reportedly responsible for most of the "terror events" currently plighting our beloved Libya – plus the newly-created terror groups now they say were created by the Arab Spring they earlier backed with bombs. It is indeed a terrible "game", in which the war on terror hides more "errors" to seek.

Hundreds of the newly-created militias and "ashbah at-thuwwar" ('pretend revolutionaries') were, and some still are, taking the law into their hands, punching holes in walls, blasting free Libyans (including children) with missiles, assassinating Libyan officials, detonating bombs, torturing loyalists, burning trees, robbing banks, shutting down oil terminals, cutting power cables, shooting in the sky (whenever they wish), and abusing human rights on a grand scale – even by "officially recognised entities", Amnesty says.

Due to this catastrophic failure of the NTC to state the law, and due to the end results the Libyans had ended up with, and due to the lack of an exit strategy they and their allies shortsightedly or otherwise failed to provide, combined with the Libyans being heavily armed 'to the teeth', the country naturally descended into perceived anarchy and a near-state of civil war, the Libyans call "total- failure and collapse of security" (الإنفلات الأمنى).

Libya is now a nation without a country, former rebel Prime Minster Mahmoud Jibril reported to have said shortly after the premature liberation; before his successor Prime Minister el-Kieb followed by informing his British allies in London that his government had inherited a country in a state of "disrepair" – even though the Libyans still hope it will be repaired, one day!

Perhaps the best 'fruit' to come out of the 'Arab Spring', so far, is the bungled elections that seem to invite military coups back to rescue. The whole "Electoral System" introduced by the NTC, the Carter report pointed out, made it more difficult for political entities, candidates and voters to understand the process. Why complicate matters; keep people in the dark right through to the last two months before the elections; issue draconian laws; barr Berber-dominated Constituency 8 from taking part in party-elections; and setup hundreds of political parties before even s-electing a temporary congress to lay the law for people to follow and while people were still shelling each other's homes? Is it a case of "putting the cart before the horse", or just going ahead of time to prevent the "impossible" from happening?

Both Berberists and federalists called for equal numbers at the General National Congress, but their demands were rejected by the NTC as "impossible". Cyrenaica and its glorious capital Benghazi, the spark that ignited the February Uprising, were denied their legitimate right to hold a referendum for people to vote on the issue of federalism and thereby provoking them to boycott the elections they cannot have; despite the fact that federalist leaders did say they will "pack up and go" if Cyrenaicans voted against their autonomous plans, and in spite of their demands having nothing to do with dividing Libya as their opponents falsely say. Instead, Benghazi is being heavily punished with assassinations and bombs ever since, seemingly for igniting the "revolution for some".

The once-united international "iron fist" used to destroy the old in the spring, and arm and "coordinate" the militias in the summer (including the so-called moderate radicals), is now said to be helpless & weak to rebuild the new in the fall. With both sides locked against each other, most Libyans were left to hope for the best, once more, and for genuine efforts to be intensified to reinstate the law to bring the 'spring' under control, and enjoy the 'harvest', before the final 'fall'?


(6): Is The "Arab Spring" For (some) Arabs Only?

For a start, the so-called "Arab Spring" name itself is self-explanatorily violating the existence of the indigenous Berbers of North Africa – just as it does other natives in the Middle East. Some Berberists strongly objected to the use of such misleading and 'racist' terminology, but like before, the world went silent, after having created the name!

When the Berbers' favours were needed during the February wars to secure a supply line to Tripoli, they were called "The Lions of Nafusa". But when Berberists later spoke of 'constitutional recognition' and 'equal representation' after the supposed liberation of Libya, they were dejected as agents of "foreign agendas", and  instead were urged to either 'integrate' or else 'disappear'.

Barring the Berbers from party elections in liberated Libya is the exact kind of democratic success imposed by UN-authorised bombs. It seems taboo for the Berbers to apply the principles of 'revolution' to themselves, but not to practice integration into another's re-volution. Just like the ousted constitution of Gaddafi, the imposed Constitutional Declaration of the NTC has openly denied the Berbers the official recognition they hoped for, after having been lured to believe they revolted against tyranny. On his liberation speech, Mr. Abdul Jalil failed to thank the Berbers by name, and instead hailed the laws of polygamy.

Take for example the apparent failure of the transitional leaders to address the sensitive "Berber events" in the open, when the Berber Tuareg's orchestrated disaster precisely illustrates the kind of respons-ibility some governments claim to have, and while the attacks on the Berbers of unliberated Zuwarah and Ghadames were somehow left to continue, on and off, without anyone being able to prevent or intervene. Even before the premature liberation, no one came to the rescue of the Berbers of Zuwarah when loyalists were shelling Zuwarah indiscriminately, despite the fact that Zuwarah's NTC member at the time had informed the UN-authorised forces of the exact 'coordinates' of the loyalist targets then-shelling Zuwarah.

Precisely for this persistent persecution it does not come as a surprise to Berbers (across ten countries – occupying nearly half of Africa) that revolutions come and go and they still are mere hamlets waiting for justice to be 'served' – by the masters, of course, and not by the slaves.

Let us make no mistake that the revolution is for all Libyans, and for any one tribe or self-appointed defector to enjoy the spoils of the spring while denying the natives the dignity of cherished identity has nothing to do with revolution – albeit red or green. Let us make no mistake that most Libyans have truly believed in the revolution, and that many of them have martyred their way to history for dignity.

Let us make no mistake that all these categories of unrecognised Libyans have fully supported the revolution; care about the unity of Libya; have no separatist tendencies; wish Libya remain "united"; and sincerely hope Libya would benefit from the revolution they have started but which they feel was "hijacked" to send Libya back to the "stone age".

This recalls into question if people are now ready to write Libyan history away from "re-placing one distortion with another".












sign saying no to arms and yes to the law
"No to arms; yes to the law"

لا للسلاح لا للمجموعات المسلحة لا لا لاعمال العنف


How did "peaceful protesters" suddenly become "armed rebels"?

There was no visible attempt to document how the Libyans become so heavily armed, to the teeth, just as there was no attempt to explain how and when the peaceful-protesters suddenly become armed rebels, or why militant groups should be covertly armed by dictatorial states. These may not be troubling questions to experts, but nonetheless many ordinary Libyans find them deeply 'disturbing' – not so much for projecting the ousted double-standards, but because they throw in more 'spanners in the work'.

The international media was ready to report the infestation of our beloved Libya with weapons, and the lucrative arms black-market then emerging in new Libya, ultimately resulting in (free) Libya becoming the most heavily armed nation in the world. Some 20 million guns are "estimated to be circulating in Libya" today; while according to MI6 an estimated one "million tons" of weaponry have turned Libya into "the "Tesco" of the world’s illegal arms trade" [4].

The UN did urge the NTC to bring the matter under control, of course, after authorising 'violence' against sovereign Libya without an exit strategy and without prior preparation for the ensuing atrocities committed by the deadly militias the helpless NTC (and its strong backers) now say they are 'powerless' to stop, despite once being strong and united to 'coordinate', train, arm and even back with super bombs!

Alas; arming civilians, rebels and the so-called "moderate radicals" is not to be tried at home; let alone without an exit strategy or a referendum. Encouraging teenagers to use violence to resolve political problems responsible diplomats should never have in mind. Peace and science are the only principles for lasting stability and prosperous success; and if the UN is yet to see this simple recipe, what else could law-abiding people say?

1- Armed Civilians And Foreign Radicals

According to local and foreign reports the Libyan civilians (and foreign radicals from 12 countries) began to use "weapons" against government forces from the 19th or/and the 20th of February 2011 – long before the UN's no-fly zone to protect "unarmed, peaceful civilians" was imposed on Libya. According to the Report of the Independent Civil Society Fact-Finding Mission to Libya, "The UN Commission of Inquiry noted 24 February 2011 as the date of commencement of the armed conflict". Still worse, on the 10th of March 2011 the International Committee of the Red Cross called the events in Libya an "armed conflict" [5], meaning that the peaceful protestors have become armed rebels infiltrated by local and foreign radicals long before the no-fly zone was imposed on Libya allegedly to protect "unarmed civilians".

Before the UN-authorised bombing campaign began Gaddafi spoke of al-Qaeda terrorist fighters being among the rebel forces of Benghazi, but his warnings were dismissed as the dictator's last response to the people's bizarre uprising. And when Admiral James Stavridis, NATO's Supreme Allied Commander, declared immediately after the bombing campaign started that their intelligence picked up 'Qaeda flickers' among the rebel groups of the NTC including "devotees of Osama Bin Laden and the Iranian-backed terror group Hezbollah" [1], no one said anything, except perhaps the British who thought the warning was "very alarming" but instead emphasis must be put "on the positive side", they said. The only positive outcome Libya has now is that it has become the world's largest arms black supermarket for world terrorists, and, to use the words of US Senator Rand Paul, a created "Jihadist Wonderland" [2, 3].

Why the "Libya expedition" ended up the way it is now may never be told, but at least we have some top-level confessions to work with, like "they always get it wrong", "they left too early without implementing security", or most recently "the Libya foray" was "un-intentional mistake". Going through the various stages of who was doing what and how the Libyan population, and the entire region for that matter, became so heavily armed with Libyan weapons readers are invited to form their own conclusions.

[1]: dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1371056/Libya-David-Cameron-ready-arm-rebels-air-strikes-continue-Gaddafi-goes.html.
[2]: cnnpressroom.blogs.cnn.com/2014/06/22/sen-rand-paul-im-not-willing-to-send-my-son-into-that-mess-on-the-crisis-in-iraq/
[3]: rt.com/usa/167892-rand-paul-qaeda-iraq/
[4]: thesundaytimes.co.uk/sto/news/uk_news/National/article1274615.ece

2- Gaddafi's Accumulated Stockpile

To their surprise, euphoric Libyans say dictator Gaddafi was advised to order the commanders of his "hailed" military barracks to open the gates, wide open, and let protesters arm themselves during the first few days of the peaceful February Uprising; as he was also reported to have ordered the release of all prisoners, as confirmed by the transitional Prime Minister el-Keib (on 25/01/2012) when he called for the "escaped prisoners who were released by Gaddafi" to be returned to prison and face justice – albeit perplexing to reconcile "escaped" with "released"!

This strange order given by Gaddafi is a common fact in Libya, and will remain part of Libya's history, and was confirmed by eyewitnesses who took part in looting the once-formidable military installations; but expectedly it was hardly reported by the media. The program to reform Libyan prisons was started way back in 2007, when Abdul Jalil was Gaddafi's beloved justice minister – in the same year the program to release militant prisoners was reportedly initiated via Saifalislam. Perfect arrangement, to say the least. During that period Abdul Jalil was reported to have cooperated with the American government to improve relations with Libya [1], ultimately culminating in relaxing Libyan visa restrictions for US nationals in 2010. And according to the BBC, NTC leader, Abdul Jalil, informed Gaddafi in January 2010 that he would resign due to the continued "detention of 300 political prisoners despite court rulings acquitting them" [2]. In total, it was reported that 16,000 prisoners were released during the February uprising alone. In February 2011 Advisor Abdul Jalil resigned from Gaddafi's government to immediately assume his new role as the defected leader of the Libyan Uprising; only to admit his council's failure and "helplessness" shortly after his installation by the bomb.
[See Libyan Army for more on this issue].

Libyans spoke of secret documents later found in captured Bab al-Aziziya barracks, which they said showed Gaddafi's cooperation with Western intelligence over the handling of protesters and terrorists. Due to the classified nature of the documents one is unable to independently verify these claims made by Libyans inside Libya, but the Western media did confirm that the secret documents left behind by Gaddafi's security chiefs, including the reported double-agent Mussa Kussa, spoke of close cooperation between "Western secret services" and Gaddafi's government in relation to terrorists and jihadists, with no details given in relation to protesters, of course. The best example for such cooperation is the so-called "rendition" program, in which some declared terrorists were returned to Libya not only to face torture in Tripoli's dungeons but also to mysteriously end up in power after the grotesque murder of Gaddafi!

Before the UN resolution was passed and long before the uprising turned to an armed rebellion, the Libyan government could have tightened security around its military installations, as indeed they were expecting and preparing for such a response right from after the uprising began in Tunisia; but they did not. They did the opposite. The Libyans say Gaddafi was advised by his foreign allies to "arm protesters" so that he can legally take them out once they become "armed gangs". Thinking his special forces can handle the "genie" being let out of the bottle, Gaddafi did just that: first he let the Libyans flock to the military barracks and help themselves to all kinds of western- and eastern-made weapons including boxed kalashnikovs; then responded with live ammunition and tanks while declaring he was fighting armed gangs manipulated by al-Qaeda – just as he was told to say, the Libyans say.

By the time Gaddafi realised the true course of [the right] history, he sent his militias to the re-taken rebelled areas, like Zuwarah and Zawya in the west, in an attempt to collect the weapons back. Gaddafi's forces entered the city of Zuwarah and began arresting people thought to have taken part in looting the opened, military installations. The arrested were asked to bring back the weapons in return for their freedom, and due to fear and reported torture many of them did just that, and were released afterwards. After he reached Benghazi and threatened to cleanse the city of "armed rebels", "door to door", the UN quickly authorised the bombing of Libya to protect "unarmed civilians", which ended with the grotesque murder of Gaddafi, before effecting chaos and sending the country back to "square one" without an exit strategy. The rest is [the wrong] history.

There is no doubt that the protests have started peacefully, by Libyan women and children on the 15th of February, but then very quickly the looted weapons were brought out by "some" men to transform the protests into an armed rebellion long before the UN imposed its bombing campaign to protect the armed rebels. This is supported by the fact that the international media suddenly stopped using the term "protesters" and instead began using the label "rebels". However, the Libyans protested against the label rebels, complained in blogs, websites, facebook, twitter and everywhere else they could, and even accused the western media of propaganda. Instead they said they are "revolutionaries" backed by the Creator. The western media, needless to say, continued to use the term rebels to the last day of the bombing campaign - the bombing campaign misarchived as "civil war" by wikipedia for fake history to recall. The civil war that began immediately after the bombing campaign was declared "success", "with precision", the UN said.

After the capture of Tripoli, in late August 2011 by mysterious rebel groups, the western media suddenly stopped using the label "rebels", and instead began calling them "NTC fighters" (or "fighters loyal to the NTC"), and Libyan government troops became known as "loyalists" – the usual vocabulary expected for designated failed-states; while the Libyans themselves continued to this day to use the term "thuwwar" ('revolutionaries'), before they were infiltrated by "ashbah at-thuwwar" ('pretend revolutionaries') – blasting holes in civilian homes after liberation was celebrated success by some, and after they were joined by "mystery cells" to begin executing both: Libyan citizens and their foreign agenda(s) – seemingly to transform Libya (and the entire region too) into what some western leaders now say is a hot bed of militant terror - a free for all Jihadist Wonderland. 

[1] wikileaks.org/cable/2010/01/10TRIPOLI78.html
[2] bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-14613679
[3] Libya Herald, article: /2012/12/16/abdul-jalil-will-stand-trial-very-soon-in-connection-with-younis-murder/
[4] guardian.co.uk/world/2013/jan/20/david-cameron-algerian-hostage-crisis
[5] Human Rights Council, U.N. Doc. A/HRC/17/44, 1 June 2011, para. 65.


3- Ammunition Bunkers

Weapons and munitions also came from the ammunition bunkers, also known as "Arms Dumps", that were attacked or/and abandoned and left unguarded right through the UN bombing campaign until after liberation. According to the statistics published by The Guardian a staggering 409 "ammunition storage sites" were attacked, including 41 sites in Zintan alone? Many of these bunkers are massive, with roads inside them for lorries that once brought in the endless stockpiles of western and eastern weapons supplied to Gaddafi throughout his 42-year reign!?

According to local reports from Zuwarah, one storage facility near al-Assah was attacked but left undamaged and unguarded. Rebels from Zuwarah and, once the news leaked out, from Nafusa and Misrata were loading their trucks and lorries with weapons and ammunition for three days, and three nights, non-stop, before the storage rooms were emptied clean. Sites like these were reported from all over Libya; and in fact the UN spoke of weapons and missiles being smuggled out of Libya (presumably they saw them from the air) and repeatedly "urged" the NTC to bring the situation under control. "Let the pigeons loose and run beneath", one Libyan metaphor says.

But then how could the NTC be expected to control the bunkers or the spread of weapons when the western and southern regions of Libya were then still under Gaddafi's control? If the UN had evidence that weapons were then being sent out of the country why then let them get away? And why declare liberation when fighting and shelling civilian homes were still going on across Libya – to this day?

Why did the various Libyan transitional governments leave the contents of such dangerous dumps unguarded, while at the same time leaving the borders unsecured and exploited by outlaws and mystery cells? Are these questions for the elected (and the so-called responsible) leaders to endorse before hand or are they for ordinary people to needlessly endure afterwards?

Now we know that many of these weapons have somehow "crawled" their way into Tunisia, Niger, Mali, Nigeria, Algeria, Egypt, Gaza, Syria and beyond – presumably a UN-kind-of-program to weaponise the whole region with free Libyan weapons, by "mistake", of course!

The final twist is that according to Reuters, who visited some of these sites after the so-called liberation day (on November 2011), the bunkers were still unguarded by the NTC:

"At another, larger ammo dump near Libya's second-largest city Benghazi, a single fighter stood guard over a tract of land dotted with bunkers stretching as far as the eye could see"(reuters.com/article/us-libya-weapons-idUSTRE7A41YW20111105).
[Style of text is not original.]

One can also presume that it was (and still is) the sole duty of the UN to protect and guard such places in order to guarantee the promised "protection of civilians" because they constitute more danger than Gaddafi himself, especially when such danger was non-existent before the imposed bombing campaign!

Nearly 2 years later, MI6 was reported by the Sunday Times to have said that an estimated "one million tons of weaponry" have turned Libya into a "Tesco for world terrorists" – the Tesco of the world’s illegal arms trade; and that this amount of weaponry is "more than the entire arsenal of the British Army".

Ironically, in quoting "one well-placed defence source", the same source stated that the British prime minister "does not want the whole Libya expedition to end in failure". An expedition; presumably on the way to Timbuktu!

If such devastating data and damn dumps (in their hundreds) were known from November 2011 (and even long before then, since they were targets), why has no one done anything about them then and ever since? Doing something about them in advance would have been truly beneficial to Libya and to the whole region – at least to prevent such sophisticated weapons from "crawling" into the wrong countries. Well, the above source further stated their "belief" that only 20 of the 400 dumps are under government control (as of June 2013); with the [caring] world still watching the odyssey unfold!

Libya's Newly Established Black Market ("Tesco"):

Having such stockpiles of weapons and munitions for all to use, while as well leaving all Libya's borders unguarded, would hardly deter the least inexperienced outlaw from sharing the spoils of war.

The helpless NTC was repeatedly urged to bring the matter under control, like one Libyan metaphors says: "Let the pigeons loose and run beneath". Without any viable means and without "law" all attempts came to no use, as more and more reports of illegal cross-border trade in arms, humans and narcotics began to speak of the tantalising "consequential result", including but not limited to arming the entire region with Libyan weapons.

On the 6th of May 2013,  Benghazi's First Infantry Battalion for Rapid Intervention had raided one of the most notorious black markets in Benghazi, namely the yard-market near the Municipal hotel in Benghazi's city centre, where outlaws were allowed to sell all kinds of weapons, alcohol, drugs and smuggled goods [1]. Mysteriously, most of the traders had escaped, because the battalion said the dealers saw their vehicles approaching the market – even though one would presume an operation of this magnitude would require simple planning to surround the market with undercover agents before the actual raid. The disturbing fact is that the buyers try-out the weapons by firing in the air – very close to a hospital nearby, where patients were terrified. A doctor from the Nahr Eye Hospital told Libya Herald [2] that, "I remember one time, when a man bought a gun at the market and started to try it out, many bullets hit the hospital walls”.

On the 23rd of May 2013, Solidarity Press reported that Benghazi's Special Forces (or Commandoes: قوات الصاعقة ) launched their initiative to encourage Libyan citizens to surrender their weapons to the government in return for cash. The fact that there are other mysterious and secret cells working in the background (amongst the traders and the rebels) for other agendas than financial gains is the target in question, and not the Libyans themselves.

Nonetheless, the official in charge of the Commandoes' Information Office, Mr Juma'a Erkhis, told Solidarity Press that the money offered for each item is the same amount charged by the dealers in the black market, and thus we have an official confirmation of the actual prices of weapons in Libya's newly created Black Market. The table published by Solidarity Press is in Arabic (accessed via the third URL provided below [3]), and the following is an attempt to translate to English what at first seemed an alien terminology:  

Libya's Tesco's Price List:

arms prices in libya

Type of Weapon Price لا للسلاح لا للمجموعات المسلحة لا لا لاعمال العنف
MT-23 5000 LD

"Any weapon made locally" (shown in the list) presumably include(s) some of these:

a wheelbarrow gun

Made by: Misrata's "Revolutionaries of The Central Workshop".

metal bow firing explosive arrows

A metal crossbow, improvised to fire arrows capable of detonating targets in high places, like top floors; made by Misrata's "Central Workshop's Revolutionaries".

rockets and missiles in exhibition in Mesratha


14.5 mm quad 5000 LD
14.5 mm dual 4000 LD
14.5 mm single 3000 LD
106 mm cannon 3000 LD
107 mm 3500 LD
Doshka 3000 LD
81 mm Mortar 3000 LD
General Purposes" ? : أغراض عامة 2800 LD
PKT 2500 LD
Webley Pistol 2500 LD
61 mm Mortar 2000 LD
9 mm Pistol 2000 LD
RPG 1500 LD
Folding Kalashnikov 1200 LD
Heat-Seeking Missile 1000 LD
Wooden Kalashnikov 1000 LD
Beretta Assault Rifle 1000 LD
Any weapon made locally 500 LD
Modified S5 500 LD
Hand Grenade 100 LD
TNT 200 gram block 100 LD
S5 munition 25 LD
Mortar munition 25 LD
Gelatine 25 LD
107 mm munition 25 LD
106 mm munition 25 LD
23 machinegun munition 10 LD
14.5 mm munition 5 LD
Doshka munition 2.5 LD
PKT munition 1.5 LD
FN munition 1 LD
General munition 1 LD
Kalashnikov munition 1 LD (each)
Pistol munition 1 LD (each)
LD: Libyan Dinar
Serious UN-protection!


Such initiatives of buying weapons back from the people may prove futile, since such offers were proposed long time ago by the NTC, but the Libyans refused to lay down their weapons unless a government is elected, they said. The NTC then responded by giving the rebels (previously known as "unarmed civilians" by the UN and its military allies) until the 20th of December 2011 to surrender their given arms and leave the capital Tripoli, or else they will feel the full force of the law – while effectively leaving Libya's borders open and unguarded?

Of course, the problem is not the Libyans who genuinely want to see proper democracy implemented before they can lay down their given arms and who hold no harm to beloved Libya, but it is the foreign and secret groups (the mystery cells) that have other agendas in mind who are taking advantage of Libya's destroyed infrastructure and free "Tesco" (advertised as far as the eyes can see without a single guard in site).

These groups are reportedly funded and armed by other democratic and dictatorial states that took part in bombing sovereign Libya, most of whom employ foreign fighters as well as some Libyans. Therefore it remains a double-mystery as to why the government ignores all these reports and instead urges helpless people in the street to surrender their weapons, especially so when it was reported that the NTC and the GNC had spent billions arming shoddy, shield militias and the so-called "pretend revolutionaries"! Bizarre advice indeed from their foreign friends.

If the law says such arms are illegal, as they should be, then all the government needs to do is: do its job, which is to implement the law; and even stop buying such arms from other countries. [The politically-incorrect question of why the so-called civilised countries manufacture weapons of all kinds, sell them for people to kill each other, then turn round and urge dialogue instead and say "violence is not the answer" is as baffling as the "Libyan Job".]

Taking over a street bazaar by offering to become the buyer some might say is bizarre. Not to mention that some radical groups may even take advantage of the official offer by selling arms back to the government, to collect more cash to further sponsor their "agenda" - not to say that the recent increase in bank robberies in Libya had anything to do with it.

In conclusion the Libyan government is urged to re-consider its ill-sought strategy (or advice) for the implications it entails in relation to the possibility of indirectly funding terror groups with cash, just as other governments ironically did by paying cash in ransom to radical groups in Mali and elsewhere to free their hostages!

The Libyan government is urged to abandon all foreign advice, especially any UN assistance, since, like Robert Fisks had said, they always get it wrong (unintentionally, of course); and like Rasmussen himself was recently reported to have said, Nato would be unlikely to intervene in Syria or Iraq "because of “lessons learned” from its troubled foray into Libya" [4]. Not to say that Syria is not being bombed right now. Therefore trusting the security of the Libyan borders to the same foreign entities would more likely allow them more "errors" to learn. Can the Libyans and others afford any more "unintentional" errors to be added to the mountain of disasters ?

Instead the Libyan government (if any) is urged to open their minds and hearts to the voices of trembling Libyans in order to inch closer towards national reconciliation against world terror - the national reconciliation the "anonymous enemy" [5] is determined to destroy by all necessary measures.

[1] lana-news.ly/ara/news/view/22279/ (الكتيبة الأولى مشاة للتدخل السريع ببنغازي تداهم ساحة تستخدم كسوق لبيع الأسلحة والخمور والمخدرات بوسط المدينة)
[2] Libya Herald, article: /2013/05/18/benghazi-arms-market-raided-and-shut-down/
[3] presssolidarity.net/الصاعقة-تطلق-مبادرة-لشراء-السلاح-في-ب/
[4] mcclatchydc.com/2014/07/08/232579/nato-head-europeans-must-pay-more.html
[5] The Libyan Prime Minister Abdullah Althni revealed in his statement of the 5th of June 2014 that destroying Libya's security infrastructure was a mistake, and that Libya is facing an "anonymous enemy" which must be dealt-with not by deploying more weapons and soldiers but by building a "strong security service" (www.pm.gov.ly/news/رئيس-الحكومة-المؤقتة-المكلف-الحكومة-ستقدم-كل-الدعم-لبنغازي-حتى-تثبت-وتقاوم-الخارجين-عن-القانون.html).]

4- France

It was widely reported [1] that France parachuted weapons to Libyan civilians in Nafousa Mountain, including rocket launchers, MILAN anti-tank missiles, guns, ammunition and assault rifles. According to the BBC, "French Gazelle helicopters also took part in simultaneous attacks on different targets in Libya" [2]. Russia's Sergey Lavrov complained to France and to the commanders of the no-fly-zone that France's act was "a very crude violation of U.N. Security Council Resolution 1970" [3]. Nato's Anders Fogh Rasmussen was reported by Reuters to have responded by saying that the weapons drop was a "unilateral French initiative" [3] and that Nato was not involved.

France said parachuting the weapons did not violate any UN arms embargo because the weapons given to the civilians were needed to defend civilians under threat of attack. And according to the same Reuters' source, "Washington agreed" that the "U.N. Security Council resolutions 1970 and 1973, read together, neither specified nor precluded providing defense materiel to the Libyan opposition" [3].

But according to the Daily Mail, "Britain and America were pitched into a row with Nato Secretary General Anders Fogh Rasmussen, who said UN Resolution 1973 did not allow the arming of the rebels" [4]. Even though such answer does not explain why a coalition member could act unilaterally, Libya's air space is neither a free war zone nor a zoo, but supposedly a coordinated no-fly zone with central command authorised by the so-called UN only to protect civilians under attack.

[1] bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-13966976
[2] bbc.co.uk/news/uk-13651736
[3] reuters.com/article/2011/06/30/us-libya-idUSTRE7270JP20110630
[4] dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1371056/Libya-David-Cameron-ready-arm-rebels-air-strikes-continue-Gaddafi-goes.html

5- Qatar

Qatar was also reported by the western media to have sent both boats and planes laden with weapons, ammunition, MILAN anti-tank systems, AK-47 rifles, military vehicles as well as humanitarian aid, a few of which were intercepted by the Libyan government on a number of occasions, and most of which were sent to radical groups. According to The Guardian [1], "Qatar is supplying anti-tank weapons to Libyan rebels in Benghazi as part of its strategy of working to overthrow the Gaddafi regime, officials in Doha have confirmed"; and that the Qatari government had defended its decision by stating that they "need to send the Libyans equipment so they can defend themselves and get on with their lives . . . These are civilians who have had to become fighters because of the situation." Unlike Nato's response to France's decision to parachute weapons to mountain rebels, all the 21 members of the so-called "Contact Group" (created after the London Conference) were reported by the media to have endorsed Qatar's decision.

According to The New York Times [3], the US administration "secretly gave its blessing to arms shipments to Libyan rebels from Qatar . . . Within weeks of endorsing Qatar’s plan to send weapons there in spring 2011, the White House began receiving reports that they were going to Islamic militant groups . . . About that same time, Mahmoud Jibril . . . expressed frustration to administration officials that the United States was allowing Qatar to arm extremist groups opposed to the new leadership . . .

In an interview with then interim Prime Minister Mahmoud Jibril one learns of a shipment of weapons that was sent by Qatar to Libya but which has 'disappeared' afterwards somewhere in Libya, the PM said. Later it emerged that Qatar was in fact arming "Islamic militant groups" more heavily than other groups [2], and that according to The New York Times, "NATO air and sea forces around Libya had to be alerted not to interdict the cargo planes and freighters transporting the arms into Libya from Qatar and the emirates, American officials said" [3].

According to Mark Curtis (in his book 'Secret Affairs'), "Much of Qatar's support went to the so-called 17 February Brigade, one of the most influential rebel formations led by Abdel-Hakim Belhaj" [10]. It appears that such shocking reports were later indirectly confirmed by the current Libyan Prime Minister Dr. Ali Zidan, on January 2013, when he returned from Qatar to inform the Libyan people that Qatari leaders had promised him that Qatar will no longer "deal" with any "specific groups" and that from now-on Qatar will only deal directly with the "Libyan government" [4] – a carefully worded statement to balance and address the popular concern amongst many Libyans over their liberated country being remotely controlled by foreign dictatorial state(s).

More shocking is that prior to Dr. Ali Zidan's revelation, previous prime minister el-Keib acknowledged the existence of "a higher authority than his government", preventing his transitional cabinet from implementing some of its "decisions", but which he declined to name when GNC president, Dr. Magarief, kindly requested from him to elaborate [5]. Ironically, almost the whole of Libya speaks of this "name" and yet only the PM appeared reluctant to mention. Libya's acting president politely replied: "Okay" [5].
Imagine the consequences if such bizarre revelations were made by a European Prime Minister in a European parliament? Beyond belief.

Then prime minister Mahmoud Jibril spoke of how the Qatari chief of the army was coordinating their final assault on Tripoli via strange 'requests' [6], and how he was asked by Qatar's chief to postpone the rebels' attack on the capital, apparently to avoid inflicting heavy civilian casualties. But Jibril was puzzled to discover that 25 of the 28 scheduled targets were already bombed when NTC rebel fighters arrived in the capital; which he says is strange and may indicate that the forces implementing the no-fly zone may have had favoured "other groups" to take Tripoli.

Presumably by sheer coincidence, Abd al-Hakim Belhaj took charge of Tripoli immediately after the presumed liberation, to become the president of Tripoli Military Council. Abd al-Hakim Belhaj is the former commander of the Libyan Islamic Fighting Group (LIFG: الجماعة الإسلامية المقاتلة الليبية) - still listed as of 15th of July 2016 by the British Home Office as a "foreign terrorist organization" [7] that "seeks to replace the current Libyan regime with a hard-line Islamic state". For more information on past British support for the LIFG to topple Gaddafi the reader can refer to the extraordinary "Secret Affairs", by Mark Curtis (Islamist Boots On The Ground, p. 359), in which the author explores "Britain's Collusion With Radical Islam", as well as invites readers to complete the picture.

Finally, many of the militias that were armed by the foreign states that took part in bombing Libya (including some dictatorial states) later turned out to be radical militias, with the failed GNC itself being reported to be dominated by the Brotherhood [11, 12]. Such installed forces have now turned Benghazi, Tripoli and Fezzan into battle zones, placing all Libyans in greater danger than ever before. Once the "unintentional mistakes" were imposed and the entire country was consequently infested with weapons, foreign radicals and total chaos, it is down to the stricken Libyans to resolve the imposed mess on their own via dialogue, this time, the UN says. (See Turkey, below, for more on Qatar's support for terror groups.)

[1] guardian.co.uk/world/2011/apr/14/libyan-rebels-supplied-weapons-qatar
[2] news.sky.com/story/1042498/get-out-of-libya-is-threat-to-brits-real
[3] nytimes.com/2012/12/06/world/africa/weapons-sent-to-libyan-rebels-with-us-approval-fell-into-islamist-hands.html
[4] Libya Herald, article: /2013/01/19/qatar-will-now-only-deal-through-the-libyan-state-prime-minister-ali-zeidan/
[5] https://www.youtube-nocookie.com/v/im46xFhV-sI?version=3&hl=en_GB&rel=0"
[6] dailymotion.com/swf/video/xq31xh
[7] https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/proscribed-terror-groups-or-organisations--2
[10] Secret Affairs, by Mark Curtis, 2010, 2012, Printed and bound in Great Britain by CPI Group (UK) Ltd, Croydon, p. 363
[11] huffingtonpost.com/sasha-toperich/libya-the-muslim-brotherhoods-last-stand_b_5618001.html
[12] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Muslim_Brotherhood

6- Turkey

Turkey was also one of the main countries reportedly involved in destabilising Libya in the name of protection. When US Senator Rand Paul asked Hillary Clinton, during the (assassinated) Stevens enquiry: “. . . it’s been in news reports that ships have been leaving from Libya and that they may have weapons. And what I’d like to know is, the annex that was close by, were they involved with procuring, buying, selling, obtaining weapons, and were any of these weapons being transferred to other countries, any countries, Turkey included?”
Clinton responded, “Well, Senator, you’ll have to direct that question to the agency that ran the annex" . . .
Paul interjected, “You’re saying you don’t know?”
Clinton: “I do not know
” [1].

The most disturbing report however is the Guardian's revelation [2] about the secret operation to smuggle arms from Libya to jihadists in Syria (via Turkey) by the countries supposedly bombing Libya to protect civilians from an imaginary massacre. The report links to a declassified DOD document that names the Gulf States and Turkey as the supports of the Syrian opposition that is mainly made of well-known terror groups. The Guardian's report also links to a book review titled: The Red Line And The Rat Line [3] which provides further details about the secret operation to ship Libyan arms to Syrian rebels. Here is an extract from the book review:

"A highly classified annex to the report, not made public, described a secret agreement reached in early 2012 between the Obama and Erdoğan administrations. It pertained to the rat line. By the terms of the agreement . . . the CIA, with the support of MI6, was responsible for getting arms from Gaddafi’s arsenals into Syria. A number of front companies were set up in Libya, some under the cover of Australian entities . . . The operation was run by [CIA Director] David Petraeus . . . (A spokesperson for Petraeus denied the operation ever took place.) . . . The involvement of MI6 enabled the CIA to evade the law by classifying the mission as a liaison operation . . . The annex didn’t tell the whole story of what happened in Benghazi before the attack, nor did it explain why the American consulate was attacked. ‘The consulate’s only mission was to provide cover for the moving of arms,’ the former intelligence official, who has read the annex, said. ‘It had no real political role.’ "[3].

[1] worldtribune.com/2013/01/25/soros-group-slams-lone-senator-whose-bizarre-benghazi-questions-were-based-on-ny-times-reports/
[2] now the truth emerges: theguardian.com/commentisfree/2015/jun/03/
[3] the Red Line and the Rat Line: lrb.co.uk/v36/n08/seymour-m-hersh/the-red-line-and-the-rat-line


7- Stalemate Situation

Was the so-called "stalemate situation" a contributing factor to Libya becoming heavily armed?
NTC's liberation army, under the command of the General Abdulfattah Younis, made a number of attempts to break through the Brega Highway, but his forces were attacked on a number of occasions. Many Libyans, felt protected by the no-fly-zone,  genuinely believed they could have gone all the way to Tripoli for the "checkmate"; but instead the news of "stalemate" were circulated across the world, with the Libyan forces seemingly stuck "back and forth" between Brega and Benghazi, with the occasional firing in the sky. What about the assassination of general Abdulfattah Younis when he decided to break the stalemate barrier and head for Nafousa to liberate Tripoli from there? 

During that period, the Libya Contact Group met in Istanbul on the 15th of July 2011, allegedly to seek a "political solution" to end what foreigners called "civil war" in Libya, and it was reported that among the items to be discussed was "the recommendation by a British-led team planning post-conflict Libya for Gaddafi's security forces to be left intact after a rebel victory in order to avoid errors made after the Iraq war" (uk.reuters.com/article/uk-libya-turkey-idUKTRE76D2Y620110714).

Did anyone take any notice, from both the Contact Group and the people not contacted, of the British team's recommendation? Well, misinformed Libyan Foreign Minister, Mohammed Abdulaziz, comes out two years later (on January 2013) to tell us that, "No one thought of the consequences after the intervention" [6]. Good morning Mr. Minister.

Was there really a "stalemate" situation that required a political solution?

Was there a political solution to the (alleged) "civil war" in Libya in the end?

Was there plenty of time allowed that could have contributed to arming the Libyan civilian population as well as "specific groups"?

Was Libya in the end plagued with new terror groups, assassinating Libyans and diplomats and demolishing mosques and tombs?

Was the Libyan population heavily armed in the end?

Well, the NTC was keen to announce its great achievement of having a big problem to deal with, and that is: how to disarm the heavily-armed Libyan population? Job done.

8- Poland

Poland was reported by PAP to have supplied anti-tank rocket launchers and military vehicles to the Libyan rebels. According to defensenews.com, "The deal "had the government's full approval," an unnamed Polish government official told PAP." It was also reported that Poland has supplied "officers of Polish Special Forces" [1].

9- Italy

Italy was reported to have agreed with the NTC on the 6th of May 2011 to supply the rebel forces with "equipment for self defense".

10- United Arab Emirates

The UAE were reported to have been supplying the rebels with Belgian FN-FAL rifles and telecommunication network. According to The New York Times the initial request by the UAE for a "permission to ship American-built weapons" was rejected by the US administration, "But instead urged the emirates to ship weapons to Libya that could not be traced to the United States" [ nytimes.com/2012/12/06/world/africa/weapons-sent-to-libyan-rebels-with-us-approval-fell-into-islamist-hands.html ].

11- Egypt

According to The Wall Street Journal, "Egypt's military has begun shipping arms over the border to Libyan rebels with Washington's knowledge, U.S. and Libyan rebel officials said. The shipments—mostly small arms such as assault rifles and ammunition—appear to be the first confirmed case of an outside government arming the rebel fighters . . . "There's no formal U.S. policy or acknowledgement that this is going on," said the senior official. But "this is something we have knowledge of" [2].

12- Saudi Arabia

According to The Independent [3], in its "America's secret plan to arm Libya's rebels", "the Americans have asked Saudi Arabia if it can supply weapons to the rebels in Benghazi", and that "Washington's request is in line with other US military co-operation with the Saudis . . . [who] gave immediate support to American efforts to arm guerrillas fighting the Soviet army in Afghanistan in 1980 and later – to America's chagrin – also funded and armed the Taliban." The Independent adds that, "The Saudis have been told that opponents of Gaddafi need anti-tank rockets and mortars as a first priority to hold off attacks by Gaddafi's armour, and ground-to-air missiles to shoot down his fighter-bombers" [3]. At the time, the Saudis were suppressing their own "day of rage" protests and banning public demonstrations. Double standards, political experts and some leaders responded. Following every "spring" known to man and at the final cycle of the "season" there can be only the "fall" – immediately after the scorching heat of the "summer" churns everything for the "winter" to wash away.


13- Sudan

Sudan was reported to have supplied fighters in Nafusa Mountain, Misrata, Kufra and Benghazi with weapons and ammunition. According to the BBC, Mr. Bashir had "openly supported last year's rebel uprising in Libya", and that "Mr Jalil – who visited Khartoum in November – had said Mr Bashir supplied Sudanese weapons and ammunition to the former rebels" [4]. Both Mr. Bashir and Mr. Gaddafi were wanted by the International Criminal Court (ICC) for charges of crimes against humanity, and therefore one of them supporting the rebels of the other can only signal confusing messages. On the 15th of February 2013, ABC News reported that the ICC has urged "Chad and Libya to arrest Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir and extradite him to face trial if he visits over the weekend . . . for crimes including genocide in Sudan's Darfur region" [5]. Instead Libya's NTC was giving millions in cash to the wanted leader; funding some agricultural projects in Sudan; and even striking an agreement with him to coordinate security between the Sudanese and Libyan borders.

[1] defensenews.com/article/20110822/DEFSECT04/108220304/Poland-Sold-Arms-to-Libyan-Rebels
[2] online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052748704360404576206992835270906.html
[3] independent.co.uk/news/world/middle-east/americas-secret-plan-to-arm-libyas-rebels-2234227.html
[4] bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-16454493
[5] abcnews.go.com/International/wireStory/icc-calls-chad-libya-arrest-sudan-president-18513634
[6] Libya Herald, article: /2013/01/31/our-wide-travels-are-to-market-libyas-message-foreign-minister-mohamed-abdel-aziz/



Despite all the above shocking reports, the weapons that ended up in In Amenas and Mali were blamed on Libya; while in its latest report HRW merely blamed the weak state on "Gaddafi’s decisions to keep government institutions underdeveloped to discourage challenges to his rule"! Like anything else, the truth is always in between. For example, who was recently paying millions of dollars in ransom money to militant kidnappers to free Western hostages in and around Mali? Was that money a factor in funding militants with cash?

All in all, some analysts say were such lethal commodities been sent to the West instead then such suppliers would have been classified as terror-sponsoring states; while many Libyans can only thank the UN, for Libya is now free for all, well protected "to the teeth", and a grand "Tesco for world terrorists" to plunder.

With the myth of Libya "will not be like democratised Iraq" is being put to the test; and with the prospect of war on terror seemingly loading more terror groups to the "database"; and with Afghanistan being suddenly metathesized to *Malistan, the war on Saharan terror could now last for decades to come, the UK says.


calling for the youth to rise

This is the poster used during the uprising to urge teenagers to pick up arms and fight for freedom. The sign in the poster says: "Freedom is Our Demand"; "Our Youth We Call Upon You to Protect Libya". The following photo shows a protest after Libya was declared liberated by the bomb-installed NTC (while leaving most Libya in a state of war). The sign in the photo reverses the above slogan and urges people to surrender their given arms, after having been glamorised by the media as hero rebels, and after having been armed by some foreign governments including dictatorial states (apparently "to get on with their lives"). Again, strange but true.



sign saying no to arms and yes to the law

"No to weapons; yes, yes to the law."


الشعب و الشغب










War Statistics



"Libya operations details": from the Guardian: Libya war statistics listed by participating country.


"Nato operations in Libya": from the Guardian: "How many Nato attacks took place over Libya - and what did they hit? Here's the most comprehensive analysis yet of who did what", at: guardian.co.uk/news/datablog/2011/may/22/nato-libya-data-journalism-operations-country


"Nato Libya Attacks": from the Guardian: day by day details, from 11/04/2011 to 20/10/2011


Casualties of the 2011 Libya War, from Wikipedia: Casualties of the 2011 Libya war




Data Journalism

Data Journalism

The above fact sheets provided by The Guardian list all kinds of details about the kind and number of targets hit during the war. According to report number 3 (see above), a total of 3511 targets were hit between   11/04/2011 and 20/10/2011:

  • 450 other armoured vehicles
  • 425 other vehicles
  • 409 ammunition storage sites
  • 382 communications or command & control facility / radar
  • 367 surface to air missile launcher or facility
  • 279 other buildings
  • 270 tanks
  • 220 rocket launchers
  • 194 anti aircraft guns
  • 148 artillery vehicles / self propelled artillery pieces
  • 116 vehicle storage buildings
  • 76 other
  • 48 other missiles
  • 24 air defence missile sites/anti-aircraft facilities
  • 34 bunkers
  • 31 armoured personnel carriers
  • 2 helicopters


The above targets were hit in the following areas, each followed by the number of times hit, with some hits including a number of targets:

  • Tripoli 125
  • Hun 89
  • Sirte 88
  • Brega 80
  • Misrata 80
  • Zintan 49
  • Zlitan 44

  • Bani Walid 29
  • Gharyan 21
  • Mizdah 21

  • Sebha 17
  • Alkhums 14
  • Ras Lanuf 14
  • Bir Alghanam 13
  • Zuwarah 11

  • Zawiyah 9
  • Aziziyah 6
  • Yafran 6
  • Nalut 6
  • Qaryat 6
  • Okba 5
  • Tawurgha 4
  • Ajdabiya 4

  • Buwayrat 2
  • Zillah 2
  • Tiji 2
  • Aljawsh 1
  • Badr 1
  • Dahra 1
  • Waha 1
  • Tarhuna 1
  • Dur Atturkiyah 1
  • Alassah 1
  • Tunisian Border 1








War Updates & Terrorist Activities

During the first few months of the war euphoric Libyans were adamant that fighting will stop as soon as Gaddafi is dead; and the transitional successor Abdul Jalil followed by declaring he would resign as soon as Gaddafi's regime comes to an end. Gaddafi is dead and buried in a secret grave in the desert, long way gone, and Libya was declared liberated; but fighting did not stop, and Abdul Jalil declined to resign - because Libya would plunge into "chaos" if he did, reporters said he said.

Instead, chaos ensued, the law disappeared, clashes proliferated, and without a police force or an army humanrights abuses worsened. The media and the leaders blamed the "powerful militias" they once seemed united to support. Others blamed the newly formed "mystery cells" that had introduced "terrorism" and "assassination" to the Libyan vocabulary. While some blamed "Gaddafi's loyalists", who are now reportedly blamed for anything that is "critical" or "oppositional".

Still, there are those who blamed the UN for helping destroy Libya's central authority without providing an "exit strategy", and for not taking serious notice of the exit strategy proposed by a British-led team at the Contact Group in Istanbul. And finally, political experts blame decision makers for not preparing the soil before sowing the seeds. Without knowing where the blame lies, the most important thing to note is that most Libyans are adamant that 'civil war' will never succeed in Libya, regardless of the attempts, and to the disappointment of 'some'.

NTC's policy of 'handouts' (cash given to 'revolutionaries' to reward them as well as to win their integration into the national army) seems to have achieved the opposite effect, as it has increased the number of revolutionaries when hundreds of thousands more were reported to have registered as 'revolutionaries', allegedly to claim the rare cash-fund, after the war had ended, and after Libya was declared liberated and long by celebrated. These are known in Libya as "ashbah at-thuwwar" ('pretend revolutionaries'), whose loyalty and intentions are not easily discernable, and even delve into the realms of 'conspiracy'; but nonetheless they had exploited the power vacuum created, the foreign-support provided, and the inflicted chaos to launch their own local and foreign agendas, practically unchallanged by the Libyan "Authorities".



Timeline: Armed Clashes & Terrorist Attacks

The following timeline lists the main clashes, assassinations, bombings, violence against women, vandalism, poisoning, fires, and other terrorist activities taking place in free Libya since it was declared liberated, with the most recent event listed first. The timeline does not list all the incidents that took place since liberation, nor it includes all the protests and strikes that invariably erupted between the violent events. It seems that being armed to the teeth and due to the encouragement received during the war to use violence to achieve solutions, many armed teenagers and criminals now do not hesitate to pull the trigger at the slightest provocation. Going through the timeline reveals a number of patterns including organised attacks on Libyan government institutions (such as the NTC, GNC, and immigration and security departments); systematic attacks on Libyan borders (flooding Libya with illegal immigrants, counterfeit goods, alcohol and drugs); and clear campaigns to terrorise the (free) Libyan people themselves with assassinations and bombs. Many of these events appear to connect with similar patterns affecting the whole region. If such events were left to continue into 2014, it may become increasingly difficult to save Libya. The only way out, it seems, is for people to abandon violence, and resist being dragged into conflict against each other.


  • April 2013: this section is no longer updated, because it is clear now that the UN's reckless agenda for Libya requires a dedicated website to document, which is beyond the scope of this page.

  • 02 April 2013: Ajdabiya: Gas: a large explosion destroyed the gas pipeline extending from field (103), 12 km west of Ajdabiya, to Zueitina.  According to LANA, the commander of Ajdabiya Reconnaissance Battalion, Mr. Muftah' Saad Bouhriq, said the blast was an intentional act, targeting the main valve along the gas line (lana-news.ly/ara/news/view/18650/. However, according to Solidarity Press,  the explosion hit the gas pipeline linking the Brega oil field and the city of Benghazi, located behind the ammunition "Military Camp 14" in Ajdabiya; and that according to the director of the office of the commander of Aljazeera Martyrs Battalion, Hussein Addinali, the explosion caused no human casualties. LANA adds that according to another source in the Petroleum Facilities Guard, the explosion may have occurred naturally without involving any "arson" attacks, because, the source says, there was an installations guard checkpoint  stationed near the scene of the explosion (presssolidarity.net/انفجار-بخط-الغاز-الواصل-بين-حقل-البريق/).

  • 26 March 2013: Tripoli: Poison: six people suffering from food-poisoning were reported to have been admitted to hospital in the capital Tripoli. The patients apparently became ill after consuming sandwiches at the Dreby Restaurant (Libya Herald, article: /2013/03/26/food-poisoning-in-tripoli/). Two weeks ago, 87 Libyans died after drinking alcohol poisoned with methanol (see 11 March 2013, below). Poisoned and out-of-date food, alcohol and narcotics have been entering Libya since liberation was declared, in what seems to be no more than an organised "corruption campaign". Current workers guarding the various border points and the border lines along the Libyan-Tunisian border (near Nalut) have complained about the lack of equipment, radars, proper arms to fight organised border traffickers, and even lack of "wages" and drinking water.

  • 20 March 2013: Tripoli: the Berber Brigadier Salem Aezzab, Director General of the Customs Department in the capital Tripoli, was abducted together with his driver on Wednesday evening by an "unknown" group after leaving office. Tribal and council leaders from his home-town Nalut, in Nafusa Mountain, condemned the abduction. The employees of the Customs Department in Benghazi  have also protested the kidnapping by closing their offices in Benghazi until the fate of director Salem Aezzabi becomes known. Apparently the Benghazi department had complained about the Director's decision to transfer more than 100 officers and employees of the department from Benghazi to Emsaad, due to lack of security in the border region (presssolidarity.net/اغلاق-مقر-مصلحة-الجمارك-في-بنغازي/). Brigadier Aezzabi was released by his kidnappers on the following day, the 21st of March 2013.

  • 20 March 2013:  al-Ghani Oil Field: according to Reuters, armed rebels from the "Jadhran Brigade" had attacked el-Ghani oil field. The field belongs to Libya's Harouge Oil. Salah Ali, the commander of  "Jazeera Militia" (part of the government force guarding the field), told Reuters that the rebel force arrived with "around 150 to 180 pickups mounted with weapons" and that they "brought men from other brigades from other towns" (reuters.com/article/2013/03/20/libya-oil-idUSL6N0CCJPF20130320). Two days later, Libya TV said the attack took place in the Zella well, where Jazeera militia was involved in the armed clashes using RPG,105 and 106, leaving  one well damaged, the offices of government forces burnt, and two injuries. According to one speaker in the Libya TV report, Ibrahim Jadhran had attempted to negotiate with the Jazeera militia to hand over the protection of the field to the Petroleum Facilities Guard before the clashes started, but the militia refused. The report also said that the attackers threatened to burn and blow up the wells.

    The Libyan government has said, long time ago, that it has established a special force to protect oil installations, called the "Petroleum Facilities Guard", or the "Oil Installations Guard", reportedly made of 15,000 guards; but now it emerged that certain militias, such as Jazeera, are in fact part of this oil protection force - something the Libyans had always opposed, and even called for the government repeatedly to dismantle all militias and instead form one unified force. In fact the recent clashes at Dahra oil field were reported by Reuters to have also started over who would guard the oil field, yet again confirming the involvement of armed rebels (or militias) in guarding such important government installations. Nonetheless, despite this alleged oil protection force, there were 4 attacks on oil and gas installations in the past 3 weeks alone - excluding the unconfirmed Zueitina report, and excluding the protests at Jalu 59 (see below), and excluding all the other attacks on oil installations forgotten from 2012 -------> more than enough for any concerned government to be alarmed, rather than sit back and condemn the attacks as "unacceptable" after they take place. This is like the Special Security Force set up by the GNC to protect the GNC only to see the GNC being repeatedly attacked. Strange, but true.

  • 18 March 2013: Dahra Oil Field: armed clashes broke out at the Dahra field between oil protection guards and the attacking armed rebels. The field is operated by the Libyan company Waha Oil. Reuters says its source said the "feud was over who would guard the facility" (reuters.com/article/2013/03/18/libya-oil-waha-idUSL6N0CAE2620130318); and that "an exchange of fire could also be heard at the nearby al-Ghani field". Two days later, Reuters reported that the militias were involved in the attack, as well as in the attack that followed two days later at al-Ghani field (see above, 20 March 2013).

  • 15 March 2013: Sirte: Gas: on the 15th of March 2013 a bomb was discovered along Gas Line Valve 17 - 375 kilometres ( خط الغاز صمام 17 – 375 كيلو متر), located 60 km west of Sirte (presssolidarity.net/عناصر-الجيش-تفكك-قنبلة-عن-خط-الغاز-صما/). The bomb was successfully defused by a unit from Zawya's Martyrs Militia (part of the Libyan army), which later said an environmental, humanitarian and economic disaster would have cost the country billions had the bomb went off. Coming just over 10 days after the armed clashes at Mellitah Gas Complex, and 3 days before the attack on Dahra Oil Field, the government must do more than condemn such attacks, and make sure all gas and oil installations are 100% safe for both Libyans and Libya's guests, if any lessons were learnt from Algerian In Aminas.  Simply there can be no excuse, whatsoever, for the authorities to leave such dangerous attacks take place at such important sites with all the money Libya supposedly has.

  • 15 March 2013: Jalu (Gialo): Oil: 100 protesters from Jalu were protesting at Jalu 59 since the 11th of March 2013. The oil field belongs to Waha Oil Company. The protesters were reported to have blocked the entrance and prevented trucks from entering the oil field, which Reuters says its Waha source said have resulted in five drilling sites being affected and output being disrupted, and that two more sites will be affected if the protest goes on (reuters.com/article/2013/03/18/libya-oil-waha-idUSL6N0CAE2620130318). The news that Jalu 59 was closed as a result of the protests, LANA said, were denied by the Oil Minister Abdelbari  Alarusi on the 16th of March 2013

    According to Reuters, the protesters were not happy with Waha Oil not "using locally hired vehicles and drivers at the field". Ten days later, on the 25th of March 2013, Reuters further reported that "Eleven drilling sites stopped in the field Jallo 59 due to the strike of fuel truck drivers", and that production may stop completely if the strike continues for four more days (reuters.com/article/2013/03/25/libya-oil-waha-idUSL5N0CH3FH20130325).

    Berber, Tebu and Arab locals from the rich zone have in the past, repeatedly, complained about the state of poverty in which they still live, and about their communities being deprived of their share of the local resources channeled elsewhere. Overall, there were a number of disruptions to a number of oil installations and terminals since liberation was officially presumed, mostly calling for "more regional autonomy" and improved living conditions; with some activists calling for the NOC Headquarters itself to be re-instated to Benghazi - where it was before dictator Gaddafi was installed.

    For example, on the 22nd of December 2012, protesters broke into Zueitina Oil Port and commanded the manager to shut down operations and demanded from the transitional leaders to provide them with "jobs" (reuters.com/article/2012/12/26/libya-oil-port-idUSL5E8NQ3D320121226). Zawya Refinery Plant, in western Libya, was shut down at least 4 times in three months, costing the government massive loss, apparently because the government had failed to provide "war amputees" and the "wounded" with medical treatment for the injuries sustained during the war, the wounded say; for which the government was later reported to have responded by agreeing to send them to Germany. They say "blackmail" does not work, but then even the protesters who occupied the GNC itself, for a full month, obstructing the elected government from carrying out its duty and thereby coming against the will of the Libyan people and not just the GNC, were recently bargained with by agreeing to all their demands (except compensation), including no less than 2,000 monthly-wage "for life" (presssolidarity.net/مجلس-الوزراء-يمنح-جرحى-الثورة-مرتبا-ثا/). Such deals, Libya Herald said, "the average Libyan could only dream of" (Libya Herald, article: /2013/03/05/damaged-gnc-building-vacated-by-squatting-amputees-finally/).

  • 14 March 2013: Benghazi: the Egyptian Coptic Church was attacked and set on fire, by a group of "unknown" attackers. The Libyan Foreign Ministry condemned the attack (lana-news.ly/ara/news/view/16822/). It was reported that the attack may have been in response to the attack on the Libyan embassy in Cairo last Monday, during which the Libyan flag was said to have been burnt; which in turn was a response to the death of an Egyptian Christian in Tripoli, reportedly died under torture, after the arrest of nearly 100 Egyptian Copts by the Libyan authorities for "Proselytism".

    Libya Herald, in quoting Egyptian al-Ahram, reported that “the detained Copts had been tortured by their captors, who had also shaved their heads and used acid to burn off the crosses tattooed on their wrists” (Libya Herald, article: /2013/03/03/government-condemns-attack-on-benghazi-church/). There were several attacks on Christian and Muslim sites reported throughout the past couple of years, not only in Libya but also across the whole region.

  • 14 March 2013: Tripoli: Rape: the Libyan Observatory for Human Rights condemned the rape of a woman patient while in intensive care, hooked to a life-support machine in Tripoli's Medical Centre. Solidarity Press described the attack by saying the woman was raped while she was on her "death bed". Libyan women protesters, aghast by the assault on women's liberty, gathered outside the Prime Ministers Office to condemn the attack and demand an explanation from the authorities as to why the attacker was granted leave - instead of being arrested (presssolidarity.net/وقفة-احتجاجية-لعدد-من-النساء-أمام-مقر-ا/). The same source stated that according to one protester the rapist was a guard working at the medical centre, and that the authorities had granted him a holiday after he was reported by a Philippine worker. Many women have reported that their conditions and status in the society are now much worse than before.

  • 11 March 2013: Nafusa: the information office of the Supreme Security Committee inGharyan, Nafusa, was attacked by an unknown armed assailants (presssolidarity.net/مكتب-المعلومات-باللجنة-الأمنية-العلي/).

  • 11 March 2013: Tripoli: Poison: 87 Libyans died after they were poisoned by drinking illegal and locally-made alcohol. The drink was poisoned with Methanol. A Libyan doctor told Libya TV that some of the samples contained up to 30% Methanol, as opposed to the usual 2 or 3 per cent previously detected in alcohol illegally sold in Libya's black market; which the doctor says may suggest an intentional act. According to Libya Herald, the alcoholic drink "was allegedly manufactured and sold by a man in Gargaresh’s Al-Hindi area" [1]. The first case was registered on the 9th of March 2013 [3], and the first figures announced in a press release by the Ministry of Health, on the 11th of March, had by then confirmed 38 deaths and 378 cases of intoxication, plus 13 more deaths that took place in the way to Tunisia because the patients' families refused to take the advice of the ministry [2]. Patients continued to arrive in hospital on a daily basis, and by the 14th of March 2013 the number of victims reached 900, and the total number  of deaths has risen to 82 [4]. On the 17th of March 2013, the Ministry of Health published its final figures as follow: 1044 poisoned, 87 dead, and 15 blinded [5].

    The Libyan Observatory for Human Rights criticised the Ministry of Health for not doing enough to cope with the disaster, but the ministry responded by saying that they have cured 91% of the victims brought to the hospital, and that the deaths were due to the fact that the victims were brought too-late to the hospital for any treatment to take effect; except, the ministry adds, one cured patient who has later died  because he has gone back drinking after he was released from hospital - a bizarre behaviour which may reflect on the state of despair some Libyans unable to sustain.

    Gaddafi's ban on alcohol consumption has increased exponentially the number of Libyan "drinkers", and introduced the use of aviation fuel in locally made alcohol to meet the demand. In one incident in Zuwarah, shortly after Gaddafi's ban on alcohol, 12 teenagers died instantly after consuming undiluted pure aviation fuel, sold to them by army officers (to make money, of course) who failed to inform the teenagers the need to dilute the fuel with at least 90% water. Consequently, "the whole thing" is made worse by the "organised" influx of alcoholic drinks and narcotics, by the hundreds of tonnes, that flooded the chaotic transition to freedom after the February wars, while the borders were left wide open for criminals to set the real war in motion. Hopefully by the next one or two revolutions, Libyan leaders may learn how to run countries like the leaders of stable countries do in the modern world of divine "free choice"; otherwise they will have only their imminent "downfall" to blame or celebrate. Joining the international community is not just "words", sold to delude and moderate tyranny in various forms. It is embrassing freedom without limitation according to "free law".

    [1] Libya Herald, article: /2013/03/11/alcohol-poisoning-case-grows-365-victims/
    [2] lana-news.ly/ara/news/view/16461/
    [3] presssolidarity.net/wp-content/uploads/بيان-حول-حالات-تسمم-001.jpg
    [4] Libya Herald, article: /2013/03/14/alcohol-poisoning-toll-continues-to-rise-82-deaths-so-far/
    [5] lana-news.ly/ara/news/view/17031/

  • 10 March 2013: Nafusa: clashes broke out between Libyan and Tunisian "traders" along the Wazen-Dehiba land border crossing, reportedly in relation to smuggling and lucrative cross-border activity. The border was closed temporarily (Libya Herald, article: /2013/03/11/tunisian-libyan-southern-border-crossing-closed-following-clashes/).

  • 09 March 2013: Sebha: clashes broke out in Sebha between the Gadadfa and Werfella tribes; resulting in three deaths and twelve wounded - as of the 11th of March (presssolidarity.net/اشتباكات-في-سبها-تسفر-عن-3-قتلى-و12-جريح/).

  • 09 March 2013: Emsaad: LANA has reported that panic and fear spread among the women and children of Emsaa'd (Musaid) after seven homes were destroyed in the city, as a direct result of the actions of the Egyptian authorities blowing up landmines found along the Libyan-Egyptian border, particularly to the north-east of Emsaa'd. LANA said that blowing up the mine field has been going on for the past week, and that the Local Council of Emsaad had documented the incidents (lana-news.ly/ara/news/view/16250/).

  • 07 March 2013Tripoli: Alassema TV station, in Gurji, Tripoli, was attacked by an unknown armed assailants, who smashed their way in and abducted  five members of staff. The attackers, strangely enough, according to LANA, say they are against violence against the media, and accused Alassema TV of being against the "isolation law" (lana-news.ly/ara/news/view/16185/). According to Libya Herald,  Alassema presenter Rajab Ben Gazi said that, "those involved were a mix of revolutionaries, Islamists and civilians", and that the attackers accused  the TV station of being linked to Mahmoud Jibril and that its owner Juma Osta is a Qaddafi loyalists who "worked as manager of the Chamber Commerce and Industry during the ousted regime". The five journalists who were seized by the gunmen are: Juma Osta (owner), Mohamed Atif (owner's secretary), Nabil Shebani (former executive director), Mohamed Huni (presenter), and Mahmoud Sharkisi (presenter) (Libya Herald, article: /2013/03/07/tripoli-tv-station-attacked-officials-kidnapped/).

    Apparently Alassema's integrity was attacked before, when on the 1st of February 2013 one of its journalists was assaulted by GNC security personnel. Libyan Herald said that Alassema TV has released a video footage of one of its men being "beaten within hours of the incident" (Libya Herald, article: /2013/02/02/wide-condemnation-of-the-attack-on-alassema-tv-crew/). On the other hand, many Libyans responded to the attack on Libyan media by saying the attack could have been engineered to divert attention away from the GNC's failure to do the right thing; but again this is exactly the problem - becoming increasingly more difficult to say for certain who is for who, or who is against what.

    One week after the incident, New Quryna reported that Alassema TV has ceased to broadcast. Head of presenters, Hisham Annajih, told Quryna that the station stopped transmission because the staff could no longer withstand the intimidation posed by the "armed" and "bearded" men in military uniform, whom Hisham says enter the station's building every day to dish abuse to female staff and accuse the workers of being against the "isolation law". The disturbing revelation he made was that the government, the GNC, and the Ministry of Interior were all informed of the repeated violations since, but no reply arrived (qurynanew.com/50032). This is quite a fundamental point, always mentioned but often overlooked, which is: why is the government always accused of not doing enough to stop the various violations taking place across Libya?

  • 05-06 March 2013Tripoli: the ministry of interior will investigate the accusations made regarding the commander of the units belonging to Tripoli's Supreme Security Committee, regarding the tragic incident in Alghararat, in which 3 people were killed and 4 more were injured on Tuesday night and Wednesday morning, as well as the death of a drug dealer in Fashloum. According to the Deputy Interior Minister, Alkhadrawi, the problem started by a dispute between three people in which "Mohammad Alboua'ishi" was killed, and that when the unit appointed by the ministry to investigate returned from the scene, it was attacked by an armed group outside Ajdaydah Prison, forcing the unit to return fire; resulting in two deaths and 4 injuries. This, the deputy says, has angered the locals who together with other rebels attacked the support units stationed at Ma'itiga Airport (lana-news.ly/ara/news/view/10819/). An investigation is underway, by the way!

  • 05 March 2013: Tripoli: GNC members were forced to meet at the meteorological institute in the capital, because the seat of the Libyan Government is occupied by some protesters for the past month. They thought it was safe to meet away from the GNC, especially with the new Special Security Force they recently set up to protect the GNC, only to be surrounded by around 500 armed protesters and held hostage for long hours. The protesters say the GNC must vote over the "isolation law" before they can be set free. Juma Sayah, an independent GNC member from Nasiriyah, was reportedly repeatedly hit on the head as he attempted to escape (Libya Herald, article: /2013/03/06/gnc-members-held-hostage-by-armed-demonstrators-one-member-hit-on-the-head/). The armoured vehicle, which was carrying the Head of the General National Congress out of the institute, was also attacked by armed men and, according to Libya Herald, "came under a fusillade of gunfire from both sides as well as head on" (Libya Herald, article: /2013/03/06/magariefs-vehicle-swap-at-gnc-backfired/). Although the tyres of the bullet-riddled vehicle were shredded by gunfire, the president's driver was reported to have kept the Toyota moving to lead the president to "safety" in Free Libya. (For a photo of the vehicle, see (guardian.co.uk/world/2013/mar/07/libyan-national-congress-rogue-militias.)

    Like many other reports, the attackers are most often "unknown", and the president's guards were said to have failed to return fire; leaving the Libyans once more to conjure unconventional explanations, rejected by the ruling party as no more than conspiracy or fitna

  • 04 March 2013: Mezdah: calm returns to Mezdah after a peace treaty was signed between the Mashasha and Qantrar tribes; following two days of clashes: see 01 March 2013, below) (lana-news.ly/ara/news/view/15893/).

  • 03 March 2013: Tripoli: PMO: the Prime Minister Office was stormed by a group of families of martyrs, mainly women and mothers, who peacefully forced their way into the media centre on the ground floor of the building; demanding "homes" and "compensation" amongst other benefits (Libya Herald, article: /2013/03/03/breaking-news-pms-office-occupied-by-families-of-martyrs-demanding-compensation/).

  • 02 March 2013: Tripoli: the protesters occupying the GNC for nearly one month  (since the 5th of February 2013) were reported to have been evicted on the 2nd of March, in an operation that has left three security officers injured. Officials say their security force was fired at despite them not using force during the operation; resulting in withdrawing their personnel to outside the General National Congress while leaving the armed protesters inside the building (lana-news.ly/ara/news/view/15729/). The GNC was finally vacated on the 5th of March 2013 - on the same day the members of the GNC were attacked at their temporary meeting at the meteorological institute. The eviction operation does not appear to have gone according to plan, as Tripoli's Security Manager, Col. Mahmoud Asharif,  told reporters that three security officers were injured, and that it was the protesters who started throwing the contents of the hall at the security forces, before it developed to one firing his pistol and throwing gelatin-made grenade. The security manager continues (according to LANA) that the operation details appear to have been leaked, as this incident was followed by an another armed-group storming the hall and shooting at government security forces, leading to the reported injuries (including one seriously injured). Despite all this, the Security Manager said the the government refused to use force to evacuate the congress; without saying how the armed group was dealt with or how the shooting came to an end.

  • 02 March 2013: Tripoli: armed clashes broke out between forces loyal to the Supreme Security Committee and forces belonging to the Libyan National Army in Tripoli's Fornaj district (presssolidarity.net/اشتباكات-مُسلحة-أمام-مقر-السرية-الثان/). On the previous day the headquarters of the SSC was ambushed by a number of people from Fornaj after the death of one of the detainees under tortured at the headquarters (presssolidarity.net/بعد-تعرضه-للمداهمة-نقل-سجناء-فرقة-الاس/). It was said that 52 prisoners are held at the building, and that they were handed over to the judicial police in Ain Zara. According to Libya Herald, the victim Dr Hassan Triki, the owner of Zahrawi Pharmacy, who is working with the unit, has died after being tortured  by the Second Support Unit, supposedly commanded by  Adnan Shibani - nicknamed “As-Sarookh” (the rocket); and that Dr Triki was said to have attempted to "smuggle a prisoner out of the company’s headquarters in Ain Zara" (Libya Herald, article: /2013/03/02/security-unit-disbanded-after-doctor-dies-in-detenition/). The local people have expressed their anger over the government's decision to transfer the perpetrators to other locations, instead of facing justice, which they say is lacking. However, according to LANA, the perpetrators were handed over to the authorities for interrogation and that no one is above the law
    (lana-news.ly/ara/news/view/15692/). This is not the first time such accusations and responses were exchanged, but like most other cases this case will most likely be sidelined by "fresh content", daily emerging from free Libya. Take for example the case of Abdulfattah Younis: does anyone know what is going on?

  • 01 March 2013: Mizdah: armed clashes involving heavy weapons broke out once more between the Mashasha and Qantrar tribes in Mizdah. LANA said that the clashes lasted for two days and resulted in  5 people dead and 15 more injured. LANA has also said  the clashes started after one person was killed from the Qantrar tribe (lana-news.ly/ara/news/view/15693/). Despite the government's warnings of responding with an iron fist to those who carry arms to state their opinion, the Ministry of Defence was reported to have avoided military intervention to prevent bloodshed (Libya Herald, article: /2013/03/03/fresh-deadly-clashes-in-mizdah-army-moves-in/).

  • 01 March 2013: Nesma: clashes broke out between the A'kkara and A'wwatah tribes in Nesma, 100 km south of Bani Walid. The trouble started after two people from A'wwatah tribe were injured in a fight over "land". The security committee was said to have brought the clashes under control, and arrested 6 armed men from A'wwatah and four more from A'kkara (presssolidarity.net/اندلاع-مُواجهات-مُسلحة-بمنطقة-نسمة/).

  • 28 February 2013: Zuwarah Mellitah: Gas: the incident at the Mellitah Gas Complex was reported as clashes between local militias competing for control over the gas complex, which is far from the truth. Solidarity Press says clashes broke out between forces from Zuwarah and "forces deviating from the law" from Zintan (meaning outlaws), and that the armed clashes broke out inside the gas complex itself before spreading to the outside (presssolidarity.net/هدوء-حذر-بعد-مُواجهات-مُسلحة-في-مُحيط-ش/). The incident was in fact started by four people from the area of ​​Zintan, in Nafusa Mountain, miles away, in Sabratha, where four Zintanis were involved in a shooting incident, before they fled towards Zuwarah, where they were met by a local man. They asked him to take them to the hospital, which he did; but upon arrival at the hospital, it became apparent to staff that one of them was "drunk" and troublesome. When the Directorate of National Security was informed, they discovered that the security directorate had already issued an arrest warrant for the four Zintanis who were involved in an incident in Sabratha. When the four Zintani were arrested, the news reached Zintan (or other Zintanis nearby), who then demanded the release of the four Zintani offenders. When Zuwarah's security directorate refused to give in to their demands, Zintani armed men set up a fictitious check point outside Mellitah, on the following day, and took 8 hostages from Zuwarah, hoping to trade them for the four Zintanis wanted by the police. This is the account given by Zuwarah's Commander of the Eastern check point of Libya Shield, in a video interview [7]. He adds that the Ministries of Interior and Defence were informed and that the Zintani kidnappers were informed that they cannot trade hostages because the Zintani defendants were handed over to the Authorities. This apparently, he says, has angered the kidnappers, who turned up on the following day and began shooting at them right outside the complex and even began beaten civilians. According to another report, also on the following day, it was agreed in a meeting attended by Zuwarah's local council and GNC member, Zawya's GNC member, Sabratha's local council and a number of dignitaries from Serman and Zuwarah that a committee should meet with Zintani tribal leaders to mediate a peaceful solution to the problem. Zuwarah Media Centre [6] says the convoy was attacked by Zintanis before its meeting in Mellitah, and that after it became apparent that one fighter from Zuwarah was killed, Zuwarah's members decided to pull out of the delegation and let the rest of the group negotiate the same agreed conditions. These conditions are as follows:

    1- Immediate ceasefire.
    2- Eviction of all Zintani militias from Mellitah.
    3- Exchange of hostages.
    4- Handing over of Mellitah to the Oil Installations Guard.

    However, according to many sources, Zuwarah's military force intervened to release the hostages, and that shooting broke out after a Zintani military force arrived to rescue the four Zintanis detained by Zuwarah's directorate of security,  and began shooting indiscriminately including at civilians, killing Rawad Assanousi Alhasayri, from Zuwarah, and injuring 7 more people, 3 of whom were seriously wounded - one of whom had died on the 16th of March 2013, named by Zuwarah Media Centre as Ala Aribi Abodieb [8]. The following video links  show the local support from Zawya, Sabratha and other areas for the people of Zuwarah who were attacked by some Zintani "outlaws". The gas complex was closed down for safety reasons, but work was resumed on the 3rd of March, after the Libyan army took temporary control of the complex [5]. It is not clear why the government and the Oil Installations Guard are not protecting such important sites, especially after the recent incident in In Aminas gas complex in Algeria? Allowing such sites to remain unprotected would only invite trouble, especially under the current circumstances; and for this to be allowed to happen is not only beyond comprehension but also reflects "suspicion", many Libyans say.

    [1] facebook.com/photo.php?v=558123480878648&set=vb.100000430035906&type=2&theater (in Tamazight with Arabic translation)
    [2] youtube.nocookie.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=M8cw5xVm4QM#!
    [3] youtube.nocookie.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=Q5OK1gGis3g
    [4] youtube.nocookie.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=4IxGWZPAc7c
    [5] Libya Herald, article: /2013/03/03/enis-mellitah-gas-plant-reopens-after-temporary-closure/
    [6] facebook.com/notes/مركز-زوارة-الإعلامي-zuwara-media-center/مساعي-وقف-اطلاق-النار/486584658055844
    [7] facebook.com/photo.php?v=558123480878648&set=vb.100000430035906&type=2&theater
    [8] facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=492217500825893&set=a.225595200821459.50202.224694334244879&type=1&theater

  • 27 February 2013: Tukra: a head teacher was beaten  on the head with a stone by an "unemployed person", who attempted to force his way to the mixed school, according to New Quryna, to hassle female students (qurynanew.com/49552). On the following day, 27 schools in the area went on strike, in protest against the "collapse of security" (الانفلات الأمني داخل المدارس) and other problems repeatedly taking place inside schools in the area, including in Tukra, Deryana, Berses, Almabna, Sidi Ali, Asira Alhamra and Alhamda. On the 22nd of March 2013, Libya TV reported that doctors at the Alhawwari Hospital in Benghazi have submitted their group-resignation, in protest about deteriorating security. Attacks on schools, hospitals and women are alarmingly frequent across the country, and the leaders must give priority to such matters - gradually grinding down the Libyan society's core values, while they still can.

  • 26 February 2013: Tripoli: GNC's Human Rights Committee expressed its concern over the deterioration of human rights in Libya, especially the acts of torture, arbitrary arrest, disappearance, assassination and abduction that appear to be, the GNC says, "organised". Many Libyans replied by saying they do not need the GNC to remind them of what is happening in Libya, but they are still patiently waiting for someone to take over who can stop such human rights violations from taking place, day after day, year after year.

  • 25 February 2013: Waddan: the headquarters of Waddan Court was set on fire, again by "unknowns"; burning the files of all the held cases of the past few years. The perpetrators, LANA says, broke in through a side door and used paraffin to set the building and archives ablaze (lana-news.ly/ara/news/view/15453/).

  • 23-24 February 2013: Kufra: the Ministry of Defence reiterated its firm stance to respond with force against outlaws, after clashes broke out once more in Kufra. Two people were killed and six more were injured. The ministry said the clashes are a revolt against the legitimate authority of the state. Like many other incidents in the Kufra area, it is not clear how the trouble started or who killed Abdulhamid Alkidwi, but according to one account Salih Mohamed Bbugharara, from the Arab Zwai tribe, was killed by a Tebu group; and that according to Solidarity Press the Tebu have handed over to the Libyan authorities 4 people thought to have been responsible for his murder (presssolidarity.net/التبو-يسلمون-4-من-المتهمين-بقتل-صالح-بوغ/). Reporters say Kufra is witnessing a "full resentment" in the absence of government forces and that the city is in a state of emergency. On the 18th of March 2013 another person, Baseth Saleh Boukhaled, was killed in Kufra (presssolidarity.net/مقتل-شاب-في-الكفرة-تزامنا-مع-اعلان-حالة/). However, government forces stationed in the area told Libya TV that the government is doing its best to contain the situation.

  • 21 February 2013: Bani Walid: a loyalist terror cell was caught in Bani Walid, after an accidental explosion killed its leader, Yousif Musbah Abdul Rahim Dabia, said to have been a member of one of Gaddafi’s Revolutionary Committees, and two more of its members were wounded (Khaled Abdussalam Ali Ramadan and Ibrahim Saleh Alhaj Abdussalam, who lost his hands to the blast). It was thought the cell was planning a bombing campaign in Bani Walid and Tripoli (Libya Herald, article: /2013/02/23/qaddafi-terrorist-bombers-caught-in-bani-walid-following-explosion/).

  • 21 February 2013: Ejdabyah: a Toyota vehicle carrying three officers from the Supreme Security Committee blew up in Ejdabyah.

  • 20 February 2013: Bani Walid: two members of the Bani Walid Local Council were abducted by an armed group, before they were led away hands tied (presssolidarity.net/اختطاف-عضوين-من-المجلس-المحلي-لمدينة-ب/).

  • 18 February 2013:Gharyan: a house was destroyed by fire inGharyan after a gas cylinder exploded inside the house. The owner of the house was reported to have said that he has lost everything and that he is now "homeless" (presssolidarity.net/انفجار-منزل-في-غريان-دون-اصابات-بشرية/).

  • 17 February 2013: Sirte: the house of Salem Saleh' Lebz, the head of security affairs at Sirte's Supreme Security Committee, was set on fire by "unknowns" (presssolidarity.net/منزل-مسؤول-باللجنة-الأمنية-العليا-بسر/).

  • 15 February 2013: Benghazi: the 4x4 Toyota of the commander of the Rapid Action Battalion of the First Infantry Brigade in Benghazi, Ayman Ahmed Saleh, was targeted by a home-made bomb outside his home. The vehicle was destroyed, without causing any human casualties. The battalion commander told reporters that he had previously received several anonymous letters included  threats to him and his family (lana-news.ly/ara/news/view/14292/).

  • 14 February 2013:  Sebha: three people were arrested in Sebha, after found to be cutting and stealing electrical cables and electricity generators from farms, and selling the stolen material for quick cash (lana-news.ly/ara/news/view/14197/).

  • 13 February 2013: Tripoli: the Ministry of Martyrs & Missing Persons had condemned the attack on the President of the Fact-Finding Commission Ahmed Addinali by the guards of the Prime Minister's Office (PMO), which took place during their meeting with the Deputy Prime Minister Awad Barasi inside the PMO, in Tripoli (presssolidarity.net/وزارة-الشهداء-والمفقودين-تُصدر-بيانا/).

  • 13 February 2013: Benghazi: two officers of Benghazi's Immigration Department were abducted by "unknowns". Miloud Faraj Alqatani and Naser Mahmoud Alwerfelli had disappeared after they returned from a mission in Tripoli. It was said that they were travelling in a military car equipped with GBPS device, used to track and follow vehicles and individuals. Contact with them was lost at  Sidi Abdul Ati check point, just before Maqroun, and that through GBPS their vehicle was located in a farm in the Qawarsh area, but no one was found in the vehicle. Apparently among the equipment the two had brought with them from their mission in Tripoli was electronic equipment and computers, which have also disappeared from the vehicle (presssolidarity.net/اختطاف-نقيب-وموظف-في-مصلحة-الجمارك-في-ب/). The story indicates an inside job.

  • 12 February 2013: Derna: a bomb exploded in the Pearl (اللؤلؤة) Hotel, in Derna, in one of the side entrances to the hotel. No human casualties were reported. The authorities began collecting information to identify the perpetrators and bring them to justice (lana-news.ly/ara/news/view/14029/).

  • 12 February 2013: Kufra: Sleim Abubaher Sleim was assassinated in the New Kufra area,  the Swayda, after he was attacked by three Tebu gunmen while he was inside his vehicle. His companion, Abdul Hamid Tayeb, is  in critical condition in intensive care. Solidarity's reporter told the news agency that the town of Kufra is witnessing a state of emergency after the army was deployed to protect the town, and that there is a state of high alert throughout the town (presssolidarity.net/الكفرة-تشهد-حالة-طوارئ-للجيش-اثر-مقتل-أ/).

  • 12 February 2013: Tripoli: Mr. Abdurrahman Abdullah Husseini, the chairman of the Arab Contracting Union, and his Sudanese driver were abducted shortly after leaving his office in Swani (Libya Herald, article: /2013/02/12/deputy-fire-chief-kidnapped/).

  • 11 February 2013: Tripoli: Pespi Cola’s sugar  warehouse in Tripoli (in Ghut-Shaal district) was destroyed by a massive fire, thought to have been started deliberately (Libya Herald, article: /2013/02/11/pepsi-fire-in-tripoli/). It is not known if the incident is related to the recent Coca-Cola  commercial, which many Arabs found offending (reuters.com/article/2013/01/31/us-superbowl-ad-idUSBRE90U03T20130131).       

  • 10 February 2013: Tripoli: Colonel Mahmoud Aljaber, deputy head of the Fire Service & Civil Protection, was abducted by an armed group od men from his office in Tripoli (Libya Herald, article: /2013/02/12/deputy-fire-chief-kidnapped/).

  • 07 February 2013Tripoli: Saleh Attunisi, Alassema TV journalist, and Sadeq Khdir, Fezzan TV cameraman, were abducted today Thursday by an unknown group as they were leaving Alassema's headquarter in Tripoli. Alassema's news editor told Solidarity Press that they lost contact with the journalists since Wednesday (presssolidarity.net/اختطاف-إعلاميين-من-قناة-العاصمة-من-قبل/).

  • 05 February 2013Misrata: the Qardabiya Market in Misrata was destroyed in a massive fire on the early hours of the morning. Apparently, the Qardabiya market played an important role during the war by supplying cheap food for the locals during the siege
    (Libya Herald, article: /2013/02/05/misratas-hyper-market-burned-down/).

  • 05 February 2013Benghazi: mirroring Tunisian Bouaziz's action, a man in Benghazi set himself in fire in Suq Alarab. He was taken to Aljala Hospital where he said to have sustained 85% burns. The man was later named Nasser Alamari (Libya Herald, article: /2013/02/06/benghazi-self-immolation-victim-named/). 

  • 05 February 2013Tripoli: Libyan human rights activist Mona Albakkoush was abducted from outside the GNC in the capital Tripoli, by unidentified gunmen in a car with opaque glass. She told Solidarity Press she was taken to an undisclosed location in the Gharghour area, in Tripoli, where she was beaten, threatened and humiliated for a few hours, without disclose any other details. She was released hours later (presssolidarity.net/الإفراج-عن-الناشطة-الحقوقية-منى-البكو/).

  • 05 February 2013: Zawya: the son of Zawya's GNC representative Mohamed Alkilani and two others were abducted at a fake check point, apparently to trade in exchange for  two prisoners held in jail in Zawya (Libya Herald, article: /2013/02/06/zawia-congresmans-son-kidnapped-report/). The report says the Kilani family is negotiating with the kidnappers.

  • 04 February 2013Benghazi: 9 Syrian refugees were arrested in Benghazi for possessing manuals for making explosives. No names were given. One of the refugees (or terrorists) was said to be a Syrian army officer (Libya Herald, article: /2013/02/05/syrian-refugees-arrested-with-instructions-for-diy-explosives/).

  • 03 February 2013Tripoli: Colonel Hamid Alhassi, head of the military wing of  Cyrenaica Transitional Council, has escaped an abduction attempt while he was staying in a hotel in the capital Tripoli. He was besieged  by an unnamed armed group trying for more than five hours, before his bodyguards managed to get him out of the hotel. According to Libya Herald, there were no official statements regarding Alhassi's visit to Tripoli, but reports suggest that he came to Tripoli "to talk to about the possible replacement of Chief of Staff Yousef Mangoush and to present himself as a potential successor" (Libya Herald, article: /2013/02/04/cyrenaica-military-leader-hassi-in-tripoli-hotel-seige/). Libyan herald also relates that on the evening of the same day the General National Congress’ Facebook page reported that Alhassi "had been shot at" while leaving the hotel, and that the story has later disappeared from the page. It is indeed unsual for the GNC to report on such matters, let alone on false alarm; which may indicate other factors at play, left for people to guess, of course.

  • 03 February 2013Tripoli: the head of the National Numbers Department, Dr Naji Bazena, was abducted by armed men from his office, in Tripoli's Ras Hassan district. The department was said to have re-activated the program established by Gaddafi to issue new biometric Identity Cards (ID's) to every Libyan citizen (Libya Herald, article: /2013/02/03/id-card-chief-kidnapped-from-tripoli-office/).

  • 02 February 2013: Tazirbu: one man was killed and two others were injured in clashes with  members of the Supreme Security Committee near Tazirbu, after the driver of the vehicle in which they were travelling refused to stop at a check point at a cross roads in Tazirbu. Three SSC officers were also injured (lana-news.ly/ara/news/view/12960/).

  • 01 February 2013:Gharyan: a check point inGharyan came under fire from two armed men, who were onboard a lorry said to have been hijacked, forcing the driver to remain with them (presssolidarity.net/بوابة-غريان-تتعرض-لإطلاق-نار-من-قبل-مجه/).

  • 31 January 2013Benghazi: a bomb exploded at Benghazi's Birkah police station, casuing no casualties.

  • 29 January 2013Tripoli: a bomb exploded at the United Nations Mission's unused compound, in Gurji Road, Ghout Shaal, causing no damage. It was reported that two explosive devices were thrown over the wall of the compound, but the second gelatina-bomb was  successfully removed by the Libyan police (Libya Herald, article: /2013/01/29/ied-attack-on-disused-un-compound/).

  • 28January 2013Gheryan: a Libya Shield soldier was killed and another was injure, after they were shot by an unknown two gunmen

  • 26 January 2013Tripoli: the house of the commander of Tripoli's Support Unit 33 was hit by a rocket propelled grenade (RPG) by "unknowns", causing no casualties and damaging the house (presssolidarity.net/قذيفة-ار-بي-جي-تستهدف-منزل-آمر-كتيبة-33-إس/).

  • 26 January 2013: Misrata: Chairman of the Communication Commission of Misrata's Local Council, Sheikh Mohammed Bin Othman, was assassinated by unknown gunmen, as he was leaving a mosque. Wide anger in Misrata resulted  in the city's military council calling on all Brigade Commanders for an emergency meeting. The local Supreme Security Committee also called for a similar meeting, to discuss proposals  for implementing security and reducing  such criminal acts from taking place (lana-news.ly/ara/news/view/12337/). In what until then seemed a safe city, as opposed to turbulent Benghazi, Libya Herald reported four significant killings in Misrata "in just under a fortnight" (Libya Herald, article: /2013/01/26/misrata-council-member-murdered/).

    However, on the 21st of March 2013 LANA had reported that Mr. Jumaa Belhaj, the President of Misrata's Supreme Security Committee, that the investigation is closed, after investigators have found the identity of the assassins of Sheikh Bin Othman and Sheikh Fakhrddin Jahan as well as of the bombers of the church in Misrata. According to Mr. Jumaa, 6 criminals were arrested, 3 of whom were involved in the assassination of Bin Othman. He also said the motive behind the bombing was "financial gains", and that there is a direct link between the assassinations and the bombing (lana-news.ly/ara/news/view/17488/).

  • 24 January 2013Benghazi: Naji Elhariri, a nephew of one of the original members of 1969 coup, was shot last night, outside his house, in Benghazi's Laithi district (Libya Herald, article: /2013/01/25/another-benghazi-assassination/).

  • 22 January 2013Benghazi: a refugee camp for those displaced by the war, mostly from Ajdabiya, was set on fire by unknown vandals, which according to one eyewitness was a deliberate act of vandalism. The badly-destroyed camp was located close to the Military Police headquarters in Bohdima district. Nine people were injured including 4 refugees from the camp, 3 military police, and 2 firemen, who were taken to Alhawwari hospital (presssolidarity.net/مستشفى-الهواري-تستقبل-عدد-من-المصابين/).

  • 22 January 2013Tripoli: the GNC was stormed a group of protesters from Zawya, and upon the head of the GNC, Dr. Magarief, immediately coming out to meet them, they demanded from him to determine when the GNC will handover power from parliament, and the election of the 60-committee, as well as speed up "the establishment of state institutions" and pay more attention to security, health and educational issues.  The protesters also called for a greater role for the independent members of the GNC because they do not pledge legion to any of the political parties, which many Libyans say are dictating the law (presssolidarity.net/المقريف-يلتقي-المحتجين-لمقر-المؤتمر-ا/).

  • 19 January 2013Ghadames: Under Siege One Week Before In Aminas: it was reported by Libyan media, in quoting Ghadames' Local Council, that Zintani rebels laid a temporary siege to  Ghadames, preventing anyone from either entering or leaving the oasis, and that there had been clashes by the border point between revolutionaries from Ghadames and border guards (Libya Herald, article: /2013/01/20/ghadames-clashe-with-zintanis-report/). It was also reported that the number of militiamen controlling the Libyan border with Algeria had significantly increased in the weeks prior to the siege. One week later, terrorists struck at In Aminas gas complex in Algeria - nearby the Libyan border and directly on a road leading to the Ghadames border. More parallels emerged later when Algerian Echorouk Online reported that Hillary Clinton said that the American government was informed by Algeria that the In Amenas attackers had weapons obtained from Libya; as it also reported that the arms used by Ben Mokhtar in In Amenas were bought from Libyan Zintan (echoroukonline.com/ara/articles/154954.html).

    It might have been the work of coincidence, alone, to besiege Ghadames and increase guards at its border with Algeria just one week before the In Aminas incident, and moreover Zintani local and military councils had denied the claim (presssolidarity.net/الزنتان-تنفي-بيع-السلاح-للخارجين-عن-ال/). Who knows, what else to emerge in "decades to come"; and with the law absent, transparency invisible, and lack of bureaucracy to document the history of the Spring in the making, one might never know the full story, except "conspiracy" - originally conjured to obscure the hideous face of sweet truth.

  • 19 January 2013Rebyana: 50 women and children suffered burn injuries when a power cable reportedly "fell" on a wedding tent occupied by women and children (presssolidarity.net/أكثر-من-50-حالة-حرق-أثر-سقوط-كابل-كهرباء-ع/). It is not clear how the cable came to fall, presumably from the sky. One comment left by one reader at the aforementioned source states that most of the victims were Tebu women and children. Local sources blame most of the oil companies nearby for not volunteering vehicles to take the injured to Jalo hospital - a mere 600 kilometres away, while at the same time being grateful for the few companies that did so. Some locals say government help was lacking, or too late.

  •  17 January 2013: Benghazi: a member of the eleventh unit of the Supreme Security Committee support units, Hisham Saqr, was killed in Tripoli, after he was kidnapped on Tuesday the 15th of January in Souq Aljumaa (presssolidarity.net/اغتيال-أحد-أفراد-سرايا-الدعم-والإسناد/). His dead body was found in a mosque.

  • 15 January 2013Misrata: the iman of Mesrath’s Omar Bin Khathab mosque, Sheikh Fakhri Husein Jahani, was assassinated by "unknown" assailants. Five other people were hurt in the grenade attack, including a child who lost one eye (Libya Herald, article: /2013/01/17/misrata-imam-murdered/).

  • 15 January 2013Benghazi: a National Security officer, Mr. Salah Alwezri, was assassinated in a car bomb outside his house in Allaithi district, in Benghazi (qurynanew.com/47526).

  • 14 January 2013Benghazi: one police officer, Jamal Khalil, was killed in a bomb explosion. The bomb was  thrown at the police car he was driving in the Kish area by a group of youths travelling in another passing car (Libya Herald, article: /2013/01/14/police-car-bombed-in-benghazi-one-officer-reported-killed/). 

  • 12 January 2013Benghazi: the vehicle in which Italy’s General Consul, Guido de Sanctis, was travelling came under fire by two unknown gunmen, LANA said. The consul was unhurt. Italy has withdrew its diplomatic staff from Benghazi following the incident, followed by Germany Netherlands and England urging all their diplomats and nationals on the 24th of January 2013 to leave Benghazi immediately.

  • 09 January 2013 Gharyan: clashes between forces loyal to Libya Shield and an armed group at Abu Shibah project in  Gharyan. The armed group was said to be from Alja'afarh tribe, who attempted to gain access to the project. A number of people were injured, but no fatalities were reported (presssolidarity.net/اشتباكات-في-غريان-تسفر-عن-اصابة-5-جرحى/).

  • 08 January 2013Kufra: clashes broke out at the university in Kufra, leaving 3 Tebus dead, after a group of "unknown" armed men began firing "indiscriminately". Libya Herald said that according to one Tebu account, given by Mr. Mohammed Bounaker, the clashes first started inside the university between Zwai and Tebu students, before the fight was transferred to the town, where the three Tebu victims were killed (Libya Herald, article: /2013/01/08/new-fatal-clashes-in-kufra/).

  • 07 January 2013Benghazi: the brother of major Nasser Alobeidi (one of the officers killed with Abdulfattah Younis), Khaled Almadkour, was killed accidentally as he was attempting to plant a bomb in a car belonging to the Islamist Ahmed Bukatela - the commander of " Abi Obeida Bin Jarrah Brigade", which was reported to may have implicated in the assassination of Abdulfattah Younis (Libya Herald, article: /2013/01/07/man-killed-in-car-bomb-murder-attempt-against-benghazi-islamist/).

  • 05 January 2013: Benghazi:  Col. Nasser Almoghrabi, of Benghazi’s Criminal Investigation Department (CID), was killed by a single bullet to the head (Libya Herald, article: /2013/01/05/benghazi-cid-officer-found-dead/). 

  • 03/04/05 January 2013: Sabha: according to Libya For The Free, Dr. Magarief has escaped an assassination attempt on Saturday. Dr. Magarief told reporters that armed men had attacked the hotel he was staying in, in Sabha, and that the firing lasted for three hours, in which 3 of his bodyguards were injured (libya.tv/en/magarief-assassination-attempt-fails-in-sabha/). According to Reuters, Dr. Magarief's residence in Sabha "came under gunfire on Thursday evening" (reuters.com/article/2013/01/06/us-libya-parliament-attack-idUSBRE90507U20130106). While according to Libya Herald, the Defence Ministry's spokesperson, Colonel Adel Albarasi, believes the shooting did not target Dr. Magarief, but was an armed clash between two local tribes (Libya Herald, article: /2013/01/06/reports-emerge-of-magarief-assassination-attempt-in-sebha/). Sabha was in fact suffering from violent clashes between a number of tribes at the time of the president's visit.

    The reports provided above do not seem to agree on the day the assassination attempt supposedly to have taken place: Reuters said "Thursday", Wikipedia thinks it was "Friday", and Libya TV said "Saturday". Solidarity Press however, who also said "Friday", had reported the incident rather differently: it said that Fezzan Hotel came under a "random shooting" by unknown assailants, and that two "commandos" (قوات الصاعقة) died in the attack. It also said that the president of the GNC was said to have been staying at the hotel at the time of the random shooting (presssolidarity.net/مصدر-أمني-فندق-الفزان-يتعرض-لإطلاق-الن/).  Shortly afterwards, the GNC agreed to establish a Special Security Force to protect the GNC and its members.

  • 04 January 2013Gheryan: a fire broke out in Alwadi Petrol Station in Tghessat area, without causing any human casualties. The fire was said to have started by a burning  fuel truck that was inside the station at the time, which was destroyed in the fire. It took the city's civil defence department several hours to extinguish the flames (presssolidarity.net/اندلاع-حريق-بمحطة-وقود-تغسات-في-غريان/).

  • 03 January 2013Benghazi: a charred body found in the Buhedama area, in Benghazi, was thought to be (pending medical examination) to be that of the president of Benghazi's Criminal Investigation Department - who previously was abducted. The mutilated body was said to have been burnt using "hydrochloric acid"  (presssolidarity.net/العثور-على-جثة-مشوّهة-يشتبه-بكونها-لرئ/).

  • 02 January 2013 Sebha: clashes broke out in Manshiya, in Sebha, between the Gadadfa and Awlad Suleiman tribes, leaving 4 people dead from the Gadadfa tribe (Libya Herald, article: /2013/01/03/renewed-sebha-clashes-leave-four-dead/). It was reported that the clashes were caused by a dispute over the killing of six people on Saturday - 3 from each tribe. On the 4th of January 2013, Solidarity Press said a peace deal was struck between the two tribal leaders to cease hostility and "withdraw" armed fighters from both sides (presssolidarity.net/التوقيع-على-هدنة-بين-طرفي-النزاع-بسبها/).

  • 01/01/2013: Tripoli: Libya was hit by a major telecommunication disruptions to national and international telephone and internet services, after a fire broke out at a fiber optic junction box in Tripoli's Souq Althlat district. (Libya Herald, article: /2013/01/02/fire-causes-major-telecoms-disruption-in-and-outside-libya/).

  • -------------------------
    Happy New Year


    December 2012: [data for December  2012 is currently being edited.]
    November 2012: [data for November 2012 is currently being edited.]

    25 October 2012: Bani Walid: the Libyan transitional government declares the liberation of Bani Walid, a year after Libya was declared liberated (presssolidarity.net/الحكومة-الانتقالية-تعلن-عن-تحرير-مدين/). It emerged a week later that the liberation was as false as any other declared liberation, and that fighting still goes on in Bani Walid.

  • 21 October 2012: Bani Walid: more that 20 people were killed and 200 more were injured  as a result of the recent clashes with government forces (presssolidarity.net/اكثر-من-عشرون-قتيلا-ومئتي-جريح-في-معارك/).

  • 16 October 2012: Benghazi: Colonel Adel Baqramawi was assassinated in Benghazi. It was reported that a "bomb was thrown at his Hyundai car from a pickup truck" (Libya Herald, article: /2012/10/16/another-military-assassination-in-benghazi/).

  • 10 October 2012: Bani Walid: indiscriminate shelling in Bani Walid was reported by New Quryna to have resulted in killing 3 people including one "child" (qurynanew.com/43143). The shelling was said to have lasted all day, and caused a state of panic and fear among the civilian population of the besieged town.

  • 09 October 2012: Bani Walid: news of indiscriminate shelling of Bani Walid began to emerge. It was reported initially that sources loyal to Libya Shield had confirmed reports that negotiations with the residents had reached an agreement to enter the town peacefully, to arrest some 300 suspects. The arrest warrant was issued by the GNC in its Decree 7 (2012) – widely condemned by human rights groups from around the world. Libya Shield denied any clashes between its forces and the inhabitants of Bani Walid, but according to Colonel Salim Alwa'er the shelling came from the area of Almardoum, some 25 km on the road to Misrata, and that his forces were returning fire (qurynanew.com/43143).

  • 03 October 2012: Apollonia (Sousa): three security officers were killed and another was injured when assailants attacked "one of the search points" (إحدى نقاط التفتيش) in Sousa. Colonel Hamid Alhasi, apparently the commander of Cyrenaica's Army (?), told New Quryna that the armed assailants had earlier reported that their weapons and equipment were confiscated (qurynanew.com/42803).

  • 25 September 2012: Tripoli: the GNC had issued its Decree 7 (of 2012) regarding the abduction, torture and the murder of Omran Juma'a Shaban, the martyr who was reported to have arrested Colonel Gaddafi. Both the ministries of defence and interior were ordered to implement Decree (7) by any necessary means including the use of force (if required) to arrest those responsible for the murder and other wanted suspects and hand them over to justice within ten days (presssolidarity.net/المؤتمر-الوطني-العام-يكلف-وزارتي-الدا/).

  • 25 September 2012: Almerj: clashes broke out between members of the National Army, leading to several casualties
    (Libya Herald, article: /2012/09/25/national-army-infighting-leads-to-casualties-in-marj/). On the following day, Almerj's member at the GNC, A'ezzeddin Alawwami, denied any clashes to have taken place in the town (presssolidarity.net/العوامي-المرج-أمنة-ولا-صحة-لحدوث-اشتبا/).

  • 24 September 2012: Derna: a car exploded in Derna's Qendra street, near the house of Emhammed Bela'eed, without casuing any casualties

  • 22 September 2012: Benghazi: Hawwary Hospital confirms that 6 people were killed and 28 people were injured in the Benghazi clashes (presssolidarity.net/6-قتلي-و28-جريح-حصيلة-أشتباكات-بنغازي-الي/). While according to LANA (lana-news.ly/ar/art.php?a=24619) 4 people were killed and nearly 70 were wounded. According to the Guardian, "The bodies of six militiamen apparently executed after the storming of a base on the southern outskirts were . . . found the day after crowds marched on three militia bases" (guardian.co.uk/world/2012/sep/22/bodies-six-militiamen-found-benghazi).

  • 21 September 2012: Benghazi: "Rescue of Benghazi Friday": Protestors Attack Militias' Headquarters: thousands of protestors took to the streets of Benghazi on Friday to demand dismantling the "armed gangs". After the demonstration, hundreds of protestors attacked the headquarters of a number of  "militias". They were reported to have attacked the offices of Abuslaim Martyrs Militia, then vandalised and burnt the headquarters of Ansar Asharia, before they attacked the headquarters of Rafallah Assah'h'ati – apparently a licensed militia working for the Ministry of Defence, where armed clashes erupted between the two sides. Initial reports state that at least six people died and tens more were injured. The commander of Rafallah, Ismaeil Assalabi, was stabbed during the attack (presssolidarity.net/عاجل-الدماء-تسيل-في-بنغازي-وسقوط-ضحايا/). The president of the GNC was reported by LANA (lana-news.ly/ar/art.php?a=24626) to have been pleased by the public reaction towards the armed militias working outside the boundaries of the law, and urged protestors to withdraw from the headquarters of the militias that are part of the government, such as those of the 17th of February (led by Fawzi Abukatef), Libya Shield and Rafallah. It is not known why government militias were attacked and had their storage of weapons and munitions stolen; but some Libyans say the protestors were infiltrated by either Gaddafi's Loyalists or/and Religious Extremists.

  • 21 September 2012: Sabha: armed clashes between members from the Supreme Committee for Security and some individuals from the Magarha tribe have returned to Brak Ashshathi; resulting in casualties and injuries from both sides (presssolidarity.net/عودة-الاشتباكات-بمنطقة-براك-الشاطئ-بع/). Security units taking part in the clashes have called for the ministries of interior and defence to provide aid and ambulance vehicles to cope with the casualties. They have also reported that Gaddafi's loyalists are killing the hostages they took during the fight. It was reported that more than 20 people were killed so far and tens more were injured (presssolidarity.net/أزلام-القذافي-يقتلون-أسرى-الكتائب-الأ/). The Ministries of Defence and Interior were accused of negligence after they failed to provide support for the fighting units in Sabha. When the government security forces returned to Tripoli on the following day, they surrounded the Rixos Hotel and threatened to "blow up" the hotel unless their demands to meet with the minister of Interior, Fawzi Abdulal, and the minister of defence, Osama Ajwaili, were met. It was reported that their initial demand to meet with the two ministers were ignored after they returned from Brak Ashathi with some of the bodies killed in the clashes in Sabha. The returned security forces wanted to know why their demands for support and aid were ignored after they were sent to Sabha to investigate the celebration of the September anniversary by Gaddafi's loyalists (presssolidarity.net/قوات-من-اللجنة-الأمنية-تحاصر-فندق-ريكس/).

  • 18 September 2012: Zliten: four tombs were destroyed by terrorists in Zliten, using explosive devices weighing around 50 kg

  • 17 September 2012: Sabha: the president of Sabha's Military Council has survived an assassination attempt, when his vehicle was attacked by an unknown armed assailants in the area of Almahdiya. It was reported that his wife, who was travelling with him in the car, has died during the attack. In another incident, one of Sabha's revolutionaries, Khaled Mohammad Musbah, has also survived an assassination attempt

  • 14 September 2012: Tripoli: around 14 clothes-and-fireworks shops were engulfed in flames in Arrashid Street, Tripoli. Solidarity Press said similar fires were reported from Benghazi and Tripoli during the past few days (presssolidarity.net/اندلاع-النيران-بعدد-من-محلات-الملابس-ب/).

  • 13 September 2012: Mizdah (Nafousa Mountain): clashes between the Meshashiyah and Qenthrar tribes saw a number of shops being burnt, but no casualties were reported (presssolidarity.net/مناوشات-في-مزدة-تسفر-عن-جرح-عدد-من-الأفر/).

  • 11 September 2012: Sabha: clashes erupted in a number of areas in Sabha between some members of the Gadadfa tribe and local security forces; resulting in at least one casualty and a number of injuries. The fighting was reported to have started after one member of the Gadadfa tribe was brought to hospital showing signs of being tortured (presssolidarity.net/اشتباكات-بمدينة-سبها-تسفر-عن-اصابات/).

  • 11 September 2012: Benghazi: the attack on the American Embassy: about 33 Libyans and Americans were wounded and four US diplomats were killed in two separate incidents in Benghazi. Ambassador J. Christopher Stevens and  'information officer' Sean Smith  were killed during the first incident, while Tyrone S. Woods and Glen A. Doherty, both "former members of the Navy SEALs, were killed during the second attack. Six weeks had passed since the attack and still there is no confirmed information regarding the identity of the attackers. Government officials in Libya and in the USA had contradicted themselves regarding this matter; with conspirators blaming one foreign secret service to have been behind the attack with the intent to manipulate the general elections in the USA, while other sources blame either Islamist terrorists whose motive was to avenge Al-Libi on the anniversary of 9/11, or Gaddafi's loyalists, as pointed out by Libya's Interior Deputy Minister. With no formal investigation and without any convictions at court the full truth may never be known. For further details and videos please visit: temehu.com/news-Libya.htm

  • 10 September 2012: Benghazi:  Colonel  Bader Khamis Alobeidi (العقيد بدر خميس امساعد العبيدي) was assassinated in Benghazi as he was leaving a mosque (lana-news.ly/ar/art.php?a=23879). It is not known if he is related to Colonel Mohammad Khamis Alobeidi, who was also assassinated with General Abdulfattah Younis!

  • 10 September 2012: Bani Walid & Tarhouna: the Communication Ministry had confirmed that the power cuts in the areas of Tarhouna and Bani Walid as well as the Southern region were due to "vandalism" (lana-news.ly/ar/art.php?a=23886). On the 9th of September 2012 Libya's General Electric Company reported a number of explosions affecting electricity pylons near Wadi Mansour, resulting in cuts to the Man-Made River's power supply (Libya Herald, article: /2012/09/11/electricity-pylons-attacked/).

  • 09 September 2012: Sabha: a car exploded outside the local offices of the Interior Ministry, causing some damage to the building, but no casualties were reported (Libya Herald, article: /2012/09/09/blast-in-sebha/).

  • 09 September 2012: Benghazi: two bombs were thrown at the house of Colonel Wanis Bukhamada. It was reported that one of the bombs had failed to explode. Colonel Wanis is the commander of the army unit that was sent to the south to contain the violent clashes then taking place between the Tebo and the Arabs (Libya Herald, article: /2012/09/09/military-commanders-house-in-benghazi-attacked/). 

  • 08 September 2012: Brak Ashshathi (Fezzan): a group loyal to Abdullah Assanousi was reported to have attacked the headquarters of the local media station and of the local council. A member of the local council, who informed Solidarity Press that they have reported suspicious activities to the security services and to the authorities but no response was received, said the heavy clashes resulted in five fatal casualties and a number of injuries, and that the attackers had played some loyalist songs (in support of Gaddafi) and raised the green flag. Wisam Abdulkarim, from the local council, informed Solidarity Press that the situation was brought under control on the following day by the Libyan Army

  • 08 September 2012: Arrujma (Benghazi): 3 people died and 10 wounded in clashes with "extremists" in Arrujma area, some 50 kilometres from Benghazi. It was reported that the extremists were attempting to demolish the shrine of Sidi Allafi. The clashes were brought under control by Libya Shield (lana-news.ly/ar/art.php?a=23701).

  • 05 September 2012: Aziziya (Tripoli): one man was killed and seven others were kidnapped by an armed group at a fake checkpoint, set up at the Zahra Bridge, around ten kilometres west of the capital. It was reported that the attackers are from the Warshefana tribe. Libya Herald "reported that two other men were murdered at the checkpoint, one from Qalaa and the other from Kabaw, although this has not been independently verified" (Libya Herald, article: /2012/09/05/armed-group-commits-murder-at-fake-checkpoint-near-tripoli-airport/). 

  • 04 September 2012: Misrata: a large market in Misrata was burnt by arsonists, around 6 am on Wednesday morning. When firefighters arrived to fight the blaze, they were shot at by the terrorists, before they fled in a "white saloon car with tinted windows"
    (Libya Herald, article: /2012/09/04/shootout-with-arsonists-follows-burning-of-major-misrata-market-to-the-ground/). 

  • 02 September 2012: Benghazi: a car "filled with explosives" blew up in a busy shopping district in Benghazi, killing the driver and injuring the passenger. One of Reuters' journalist "saw the remains of the driver inside the wrecked car" (reuters.com/article/2012/09/02/libya-explosion-benghazi-idUSL6E8K21SR20120902).

  • 02 September 2012: Benghazi: two intelligence services officers were targeted in a car-bomb explosion in Benghazi’s Jamal Abdunnasser Street. Colonel Juma's Alkadiki was reported to have "died instantly", while Captain Basit Agfiza Mabrouk was rushed to hospital. Eyewitnesses reported that the bomb went off when captain Mabrouk slammed the door shut (Libya Herald, article: /2012/09/02/dead-intelligence-officer-named/).

  • 02 September 2012: Benghazi: two car-bombs exploded in Benghazi, and another discovered outside Tibisti Hotel (alwatan-libya.com/more-23852-0-جريحين في انفجار سيارة مفخخة ببنغازي ، واللجنة الامنية تحبط محاولة تفجير اخري أمام فندق تيبستي).

  • 02 September 2012: Bani Walid: in a manifesto published on the 1st of September, the local council of Bani Walid condemned the terror activities taking place in the town, and stated that such acts of vandalism and "burning homes" were carried out by "criminal infiltrators" hiding in the Bani Walid area (qurynanew.com/40957).

  • 1 September 2012: Sirte: a terror cell was reported by the authorities to have been discovered in Sirte, with the intention of destabilising Libya.

  • 1 September 2012: Sabha: Gaddafi's loyalists were reported to have celebrated the September anniversary in the area of Brak Ashshathi, Tamenhent and Qira (presssolidarity.net/أزلام-القذافي-يقتلون-أسرى-الكتائب-الأ/). When government units visited the area to investigate the claims, they were reported to have seen green flags and found socialist slogans inscribed on walls.

  • 31 August 2012: Benghazi:  security officers working for the Ministry of Defence discovered a home-made bomb, weighing between 4 and 6 kilograms and triggered by mobile control, behind the Blood Bank in Sidi Hussein area (presssolidarity.net/القوة-المشتركة-لحماية-بنغازي-تتمكن-من/).

  • 29 August 2012: Tripoli: a terror cell loyal to Col. Gaddafi was arrested in Abu Salim

  • 29 August 2012: Tripoli: suspected Salafists have struck again in the capital Tripoli, destroying 30 graves at the "Othman Pasha Madrassa", and chopping down a tree inside the 'school' (thought to have been worshipped), before they made away with a number of texts and nearly half of the books from the madrasa's library. It was reported that  the attackers were a group of 200 heavily-armed men who arrived around 2 am at the site. Some of the graves are said to be of the founder of the madrasa, Othman Pasha, and his family (Libya Herald, article: /?p=13436). 

  • 27 August 2012: Benghazi:  the air force commander Mahmoud Berhouma was shot in both legs by an unknown man, who then stole the victim's car (Libya Herald, article: /2012/08/30/air-force-commander-shot-in-benghazi-hit-and-run-attack/).

  • 27 August 2012: Benghazi: the headquarters of the Criminal Investigation (البحث الجنائي) in Benghazi was attacked by armed men, reportedly to steal the archive of the criminal cases held at the centre, as well as to release a number of criminals held at the site. According to New Quryna, the employees at the site had a prior knowledge of the attack and were fully prepared to defend their offices. It was reported that two of the assailants were arrested during the ensued gun fight. This is the second time the offices of the Criminal Investigation in Benghazi was attacked

  • 26 August 2012: Zliten: mass removal of tombs in Zliten: locals from Zliten, in coordination and agreement with local elders, were reported to have removed a number of shrines and tombs in the town, but leaving the actual graves intact. The reason is to protect them, they said. The graves that were higher than the ground were leveled with the ground, as to appear like other graves. It was reported that a number of objects believed to be used in "magic" were found at some of the shrines. The operation was completed without any issues, removing the following shrines on Sunday:
    ضريح الشيخ مفتاح الصفراني, ضريح الشيخ علي البكو والطاهر البكو وضريح الشيخ سالم بن سلمان وضريح الشيخ ابراهيم بن ناصر وضريح الشيخ عمر الصداعي وضريح الذرعية التي تعرف بأنها والدة الشيخ عبدالسلام الأسمر
    and on Monday the following shrines were being removed: الشيخ يعقوب سليمان الفيتوري وقبور إخوته الموجودة في مقبرة أولاد سليمان السبعة
    (Source: qurynanew.com/40612)

  • 26 August 2012: Tripoli: the suspected Salafists who were involved in the attack on al-Sha'ab Mosque (see below) were reported to have beaten and kidnapped an Imam who was attempting to reason with them over the destruction of the mosque. Some people tried to protect the Imam as he was beaten, but confusion forced them to flee the scene (Libya Herald, article: /?p=13314).

  • 25 August 2012: Tripoli: al-Sha’ab mosque and Sufi shrine was attacked by a number of heavily-armed militias – just one day after the attack on Zliten's mosque and library. Using a bulldozer the mosque was badly damaged, completely breaking one corner of the mosque to rubble. Graves at the shrine were found empty. Reuters said, "Government officials said both attacks were launched by Islamists who found Salafi shrines and practices idolatrous"[1]. Reuters also said that a man who appeared overseeing the demolishing said that the Interior Ministry authorised the move [2]; while according to Libya Herald the GNC's president, Dr. Mohammad Yousef Almagarief, said that those responsible “are unfortunately aligned with some in the Supreme Security Committee and some ex-revolutionaries”[3]. It was also reported that the attack took place while police and security forces were watching and even blocking the road while the bulldozer was pulling down the mosque. The GNC condemned the attacks on Libya's heritage and integrity, and recalled the ministers of Defence and Interior for questioning over the way they handled the desecration of the mosques. The Interior Minister Fawzi Abdela'al resigned on the 26th of August, but later he withdrew his resignation request. Three journalists, working for al-Assema TV, including the managing director Nabil Shebani, were apparently arrested by the Supreme Security Committee (SSC) on the 25th of August for their coverage of the mosque's demolition[4]. As expected by most Libyans, Libyan security officials had stunned the world by announcing that many official security units are infiltrated by Gaddafi's supporters, after officials discovered an entire military barracks was under the control of a loyalist cell, namely the Awfia Brigade – known by its members as ‘the Martyr Qaddafi’ Brigade[5]. (See below, 21 August 2012 for more on this.)

    [1] (reuters.com/article/2012/08/26/us-libya-islamists-minister-idUSBRE87P09220120826)
    [2] (reuters.com/article/2012/08/25/us-libya-islamists-idUSBRE87O08Y20120825)
    [3] (Libya Herald, article: /?p=13237)
    [4] (Libya Herald, article: /?p=13252)
    [5] (Libya Herald, article: /?p=13204)

  • 23-24 August 2012:  Zliten: clashes erupted between two tribes in Zliten on Thursday, before it developed into a battle involving heavily armed groups, using RPG's, tank shells and anti-aircraft guns. Explosions were heard through the night, while Salafists were reported to have been demolishing the Sufi shrine of Sidi Aebdesslam Lasmer in the background (see next). Initially it was said that 2 or 3 people died and about one dozen injured, but later reports said between 12 and 16 people died and 35 more wounded. It was reported that a petrol station was also destroyed in the fight, and tanks were stationed by check points along the road to the political capital. Way back on the 31 December 2011 (see below) the secretary of the Libyan Security in Zliten was reported by Libya.tv to have revealed a loyalist cell in Zliten with the aim of destabilising the area, and that the loyalists were in contact with Saadi Gaddafi in Niger, as well as with loyalists in other areas including Wershfana, Bani Walid and in Tunisia. How such groups were allowed to operate since last year remains a mystery.

  • 23-24 August 2012:  Zliten: destruction of the Sufi shrine of Sidi Aebdesslam Lasmer: it is not known if the attacks on the mosque were part of the clashes that went on through the night or were separate. Last March the media reported the Salafists' attempt to destroy the same mosque, but armed rebels from Zliten and Misrata defended the shrine. The attackers used a bulldozer to demolish parts of the mosque including the front and the main dome. The shrine is more than 400 years old, originally built for Sidi Aebdesslam – "an ascetic" and a "warrior" who took up arms when Zliten was under attack (Libya Herald, article: /?p=13135). The mosque's library was completely razed during the frenzy.

  • 21 August 2012: Tarhouna: a number of clashes were reported from Tarhouna between armed groups and government security forces in the Sunday Market area (Souq Alah'ad), resulting in 8 injuries and one death (said to be أكرم علي احمد الكيلاني, from the security forces). Missiles and heavy weapons were found at the site, including 100 tankes and 26 rocket launchers. The clashes erupted after security forces attempted to arrest a group suspected to have been related to the recent bombings in Tripoli (qurynanew.com/40448). On the following day Libya Herald reported that the head of Tarhouna's military council was temporarily captured, and that members of Tarhuna’s al-Awfia Brigade, which seized Tripoli International Airport in June, were involved in the clashes (Libya Herald, article: /?p=13094). (See above, 25 August 2012 for more on this.)

  • 20 August 2012: Benghazi: an Egyptian diplomat's car was blown up by a home-made device, said to have been placed beneath the vehicle (reuters.com/article/2012/08/20/libya-blast-idUSL6E8JKBIR20120820).

  • 20 August 2012: Tripoli: a car bomb was defused in the Mansoura district, Tripoli.

  • 19 August 2012 (Eid): Tripoli: two car bombs exploded in the capital, killing two people and injuring three more. This is the first time civilians were killed by a car bomb since Libya was declared liberated. Deputy Interior Minister, Ali Alkhadrawi, had confirmed to Alwatan that the first bomb was remotely detonated in Midan Attahrir (Liberation Square), while the second went off outside the Interior Ministry (alwatan-libya.com/more-23570-1-). He also said that the bombing was carried out by Gaddafi's loyalists. According to the BBC, "One blast took place near the former military academy for women, while the other struck close to the interior ministry" (bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-19310528). However, Libya Herald said that two more unexploded bombs were found in the capital: one near the Interior Ministry and the other at Alsreem street
    (Libya Herald, article: /?p=12960).

  • 19 August 2012 (Eid): Benghazi: unknown gunmen fired indiscriminately near a petrol station (شيل بوكر) at 6 o'clock Sunday morning, before they fled in their Toyota; which according to the source of Solidarity Press (وكالة أنباء التضامن) carried the plate number 001208 and belonged to the National Security, while the second vehicle belonged to the National Army (presssolidarity.net/مجهولون-يطلقون-النار-بشكل-عشوائي-في-بن/).

  • 18 August 2012: Benghazi: the local control centre of the General Company for Electicity in the western Fwihat, in Benghazi, was attacked by three vandals. Fathi Alfituri, an engineer at the centre, was attacked with an iron bar as he made his way into the centre. The staff at the facility locked the centre, keeping the attackers outside. The attackers said they will bomb the centre, before they embarked on destroying the tyres of company vehicles parked outside the building. According to the head of the media office at the Ministry of Electricity, the centre was attacked in the past and still is under threat due to lack of protection from the security forces (qurynanew.com/40261).

  • 18 August 2012: deputy president of Bani Walid's Local Council, Said Younis Said, was kidnapped from his home. The kidnappers were said to have arrived in a convoy of 15 cars. New Quryna said his wife and children were beaten by the attackers (qurynanew.com/40329).

  • 16 August 2012: Tripoli: the headquarters of Albilad Newspaper (صحيفة البلاد) in the capital's Zenata area was attacked by a group of armed assailants. It was reported that the attackers forcibly closed the building (gate.ahram.org.eg/News/241721.aspx).

  • 13 August 2012: Benghazi: an unidentified gunmen attacked a patrol unit belonging to the National Security in Benghazi. The unit was parked outside the police station that said to house some detainees whom the attackers attempted to release. The spokesman for the National Security in Benghazi, Majdi Alaurfi, told New Quryna the attackers threw an explosive device at the patrol, but no casualties were reported. The car of one of the police officers, parked outside his house, was also attacked with an explosive device, making a hole under the seat (about 30 cm), and damaging the front of the car and the front of the house (qurynanew.com/40101).

  • 12 August 2012: Tripoli: the president of the Libyan Businessmen Council, Abdullah Alfallah, was attacked in the Dahra area by a group of four armed men. The attackers set up a fake check point, ordered Mr. Alfallah out of the car, and made away with his car, leaving him by the side of the road in the middle of the night (alwatan-libya.com/more-23498-1-).

  • 10 August 2012: Benghazi: the commander of the Libyan Army's Ammunition & Armament, Brigadier-General Mohammed Hadiya Alfitouri, was assassinated in Benghazi by an unknown group of assassins. He was shot after he was asked to show his ID by a group of four men in a car ( qurynanew.com/39967).

  • 10 August 2012: Sirte: a Jordanian male nurse, Ghazi Ali Owidat, was attacked by a group of patients inside the hospital. Despite being stabbed several times, the nurse was said to be in a stable condition (Libya Herald, article: /?p=12658).

  • 10 August 2012: Tripoli: repeated power cuts hit a number of areas in the capital Tripoli. Such power cuts were previously reported to the authorities long before the start of Ramadan, but it seems the problem is worsening instead of being resolved. One of the most recent power cuts lasted for nearly 14 hours in many areas including Ain Zara, Souq Aljuma'a, Salah Addin and Tajoura. Without power supply, fridges and large storage facilities were affected, resulting in financial loss, as people and businesses were unable to preserve the (expensive) food supplies they were stocking for the month of Ramadan. It is not known why such repeated failures, but recent reports from Bani Walid and other areas show a number of power plants were vandalised (see 08 August 2012).

  • 09 August 2012: Kufra: members of Zwai tribe attempted to assassinate the Tebu leader Essa Abdulmajid. The Tebu leader was in his way to Rebyana, when gunmen appeared and began shooting at his car. No casualties were reported (Libya Herald, article: /?p=12543). However, according to Solidarity Press (presssolidarity.net/تجدد-الاشتباكات-في-مدينة-الكفرة-ظهر-ال/), clashes broke out once more on Thursday, after Tebu fighters attacked Point 3-3, which was manned by volunteer-revolutionaries. Two Tebu vehicles were destroyed out of the 13 vehicles that took part in the attack, and a number of fighters were injured from both sides, but no fatalities were reported.

  • 08 August 2012: Bani Walid: two power stations in Bani Walid area were vandalised, resulting in power cuts in a number of areas. One lorry carrying electrical equipment was attacked by armed robbers while it was in its way to Traghen (qurynanew.com/39924).

  • 07 August 2012: Tripoli: a group of men attempted to kidnap the editor of New Quryna Mr. Musbah Alawami in Addahra area, in the capital Tripoli. He was stopped by a group of four men in a white Toyota after he left his hotel. The group attempted to get the journalist in the car, but he was helped by locals and also by members of the Supreme Security Committee who were nearby. The attackers fled the scene.
    alwatan-libya.com/more-23405-1-مجموعة مسلحة تفشل في اختطاف الصحفي مصباح العوامي مدير تحرير صحيفة قورينا بطرابلس

  • 07 August 2012: Tripoli: the office of the Health Minister, Fatima Alhamroush, was attacked by a group of "wounded", who say their requests for medical treatment were ignored by the government. No casualties were reported.

  • 07 August 2012: Wershfana: massacre of entire family: according to New Quryna, the Libyan Observatory for Human Rights condemned the murder of an entire family, in their sleep, by the militia زوراً وبهتاناً, which claims to belong to the Ministry of Defence (الإسناد الأمني التابعة لوزارة الدفاع); and called for the NTC to bring to justice the Minister of Interior Fawzi Abdulaa'l and dissolve the militia responsible for the atrocity. According to this report, the family was asleep when armed men broke in and slaughtered the head of the family, the 70-year old Alhaj Ramadan Bouameed, his wife and their son. However, according to one comment left for the New Quryna report (qurynanew.com/39798), five people were killed including Alhaj Ramadan Bouameed (70 years old), his wife (more than 65 years old), Salah Ramadan Bouameed (son), Mahmoud Bouameed (son), and Basheer Bouameed (son), adding that the wife of one of the sons was badly injured. This incident was hardly reported by the media, and without a full report from the government, it is difficult to know exactly the full story. But reading through all the comments left by readers for the above report, one learns that one of the killed sons was allegedly a pro-Gaddafi operative, who refused to surrender when the government unit ordered him to do so; while another reader says the father himself was also firing at the government unit. In either case, the law must be respected and the accused must be brought to justice and faced with the evidence.

  • 06 August 2012: Tripoli: a group of armed assailants attempted to attack a vehicle carrying two American embassy officials, but the driver was able to evade the attackers. It is not known if the attackers were  specifically targeting US Embassy officials, Libya Herlad reported.
    Libya Herald, article: /?p=12381

  • 06 August 2012: Aziziya: according to Libya Herald, two men and one woman were killed in an operation by the SSC against suspected pro-Qaddafi operatives near Aziziya. The suspects were linked to a number of attempted terror attacks in the capital. The raid came after the arrest of Khairi Aljermi in Ben Gashir, who was thought to be a major fifth-column figure.
    Libya Herald, article: /?p=12316 ; Libya Herald, article: /?p=12390

  • 05 August 2012: Misrata: unknown terrorist group had attacked the residential headquarters of the Red Cross in Misrata, using a variety of heavy weapons. It was believed that seven employees of the Red Cross were in the building, which was badly damaged, but no casualties were reported. This is the filth time in less than three months the Red Cross was attacked, leading the organisation to suspend its operations in Misrata and Benghazi (qurynanew.com/39744). The head of the ICRC’s delegation in Libya, Ishfaq Mohammed, told reporters that they are appalled by the deliberate targeting of their staff, who risk their lives to help the Libyan people, and that the ICRC has become extremely concerned about the deterioration of the security situation in Libya.

  • 05 August 2012: Tripoli: a pilot working for Buraq Air, Hamza Saleh Almismari, was kidnapped and tortured before he was  released. But it was reported that the kidnappers later followed him to his sister's house and killed him in front of the family. Libya Herald, article: /?p=12295

  • 04 August 2012: Mizdah: seven people were killed after clashes returned to Mizdah on Saturday night: six from the Mashasha tribe and one from the Qantar. The situation was brought under control after elders from the Mashasha tribe intervened  to resolve the disagreement.

  • 04 August 2012: Tripoli: a small bomb exploded near the centre of Tripoli, destroying one vehicle. It was reported that the bomb blast followed clashes between street traders in Rasheed Street after a dispute on Friday evening between two groups who were fighting over the same space. Guns and  home-made explosives were said to have been used in the clashes. It was beleived that the exploded car contained explosive material, rather than an actual car bomb (Libya Herald, article: /?p=12193). However, according to New Quryna (qurynanew.com/39609), eyewitnesses say an unknown assailants threw the home-made bomb at the offices of the military police in the capital Tripoli, near Bourguiba Mosque, but instead it landed on the car.

  • 04 August 2012: Benghazi: a car-bomb was discovered in the basement of Tibesti Hotel in Benghazi. The bomb was said to be between 40 and 60kg. The bomb had been disabled. The identity of those who planted the bomb is not known.

  • 03 August 2012: Mizdah: five men were killed in clashes between members of the Mizdah Liberation Brigade and a group of attackers thought to include some illegal immigrants. The attackers were reported to have attacked the military base in an attempt to free a number of illegal immigrants reportedly held inside the base. Libya Herald, article: /?p=12215

  • 03 August 2012: Tripoli: 3 members of the Supreme Security Committee were killed in Addahra and Fashloum areas, after they attempted to resolve clashes between fighters from Addahra and Fashloum. Eyewitnesses told security officials that the armed clashes between the two areas were drug related. qurynanew.com/39642

  • 03 August 2012: Mahmoud Jibril, founder of the NFA, called for all Libyans to unite to protect the integrity of Libya, and warned that if the bombings, the clashes and the assassinations continue, Libya will become like Iraq or Somalia.

  • 01 August 2012: Benghazi: a building near Dubai Street in Benghazi’s Fwihat district was damaged by an explosion in the early hours of the morning. It was reported that the building was once occupied by the military intelligence. An eyewitness said a man was seen putting a number of bags against a wall, followed by an explosing a few minutes after he left (Libya Herald, article: /?p=11965).

  • 31 July 2012: Benghazi: a delegation of seven members from the Iranian Red Crescent was kidnapped in Benghazi, outside the tax office. It was reported that a convoy of seven vehicle stopped the delegation car and ordered the occupants to step out, before they were taken to an unknown destination (qurynanew.com/39366).

  • 29 July 2012: Benghazi: Major General Khalifa Heftar has survived a second assassination attempt in Benghazi. It was reported by Alarabiya that the General's car was shot at as he was driving home. Alarabiya also said that the General had denied that the attempt on his life had anything to do with the assassination of General Younis, and that he blames Gaddafi's loyalists instead. The attempt on his life came  just one day after the first anniversary of General Younis' assassination (alarabiya.net/articles/2012/07/30/229190.html).

  • 29 July 2012: Benghazi: Military Intelligence Colonel Solaiman Bouzrida was assassinated in Benghazi. He was shot in the head by assailants as they sped past him in their car. Source: qurynanew.com/39235 . This latest assassination recalls the fears of the Libyan Observatory for Human Rights (المرصد الليبى لحقوق الإنسان) in that the wave of 'assassinations' currently plighting Benghazi may become the new dominant culture and justice in the absence of the law. 

  • 27 July 2012: Benghazi: a number of small bombs were found inside the building of the National Security in Benghazi. The total amount of explosives was said to be 40 kg, divided into a number of devices, each of which had a "temporary explosive device" ( جهاز مؤقت للتفجير). Apparently, the building was evacuated and the bombs were defused (qurynanew.com/39128).

  • 27 July 2012: Benghazi: a hand grenade was thrown at the building of the Appeal Court in Benghazi, casuing a small hole in one of the wall.

  • 26 July 2012: Benghazi: X employee of the 'Internal Security', Mr. Abdalhamid Ali Qandouz, was killed in a car bomb, in Benghazi. New Quryna reported that  according to the spokesman of the local National Security, Majdi Alarfi, Mr. Qandouz left a mosque, got on the car, and turned on the ignition key, which triggered the blast (qurynanew.com/39048). New Quryna also said that Majdi Alarfi said there were around 12 more of X employees of the Internal Security who died in similar 'explosions' – all in Benghazi. While Alwatan (alwatan-libya.com/more-23158-1-إثر انفجار قنبلة في سيارته : مقتل موظف سابق بجهاز الأمن الداخلي في بنغازي) reported that the bomb was detonated by remote control about 2 km after Mr. Qandouz left his home.

  • 23 July 2012: according to 'Libya Today' (libya-alyoum.com/news/index.php?id=21&textid=10771) the Libyan Islamic Affairs ministry said that most of Libya's 5000 mosques are under the control of 'Salafists'. The ministry source said that the ministry lost control over these mosques during the February wars, and that the ministry is gradually regaining control over  the mosques.

  • 19 July 2012: Benghazi: Tawerghans' refugee camp in Gar Younis, in Benghazi, was attacked by an unknown group. The Libyan Observatory for Human Rights condemned the attack and urged the authorities to resolve the disaster of Tawergha (qurynanew.com/38680).

  • 15 July 2012Tripoli: the president of Libya's Olympic Committee, Nabil al-Alam, was abducted in Tripoli after nine 'mystery' gunmen removed him from his car. Neither the army nor the police were aware of the arrest. After he was released a week later, Mr. Alam said that his kidnapping remains a mystery.

  • 09 July 2012: Derna: a bomb blew up in Derna's Sahaba Mosque, destroying to rubbles the walls around the tomb of the 7th century Arab general Zuhayr Ibn Qais. Media reports say locals say Salafists were behind the attack. The destruction of Sufi tombs spread throughout North Africa and the Middle East since the so-called "Arab Spring" began. Probably Mali's Timbuktu is the worst hit among all targets.

  • 08 July 2012: Bani Walid: two journalists, Yousef Salem Badi and Abdulqader Fsouk, working for  Misrata's "Tobacts Television & Radio", were kidnapped near the town of Bani Walid, after returning from Mezdah, where they were covering the local elections. Misrata's media workers urged the ministries of defence and interior to intervene to bring about their release (qurynanew.com/38097).

  • 7/7/2012: Cyrenaica: Election Day: major security violations in Albaydaa, Ajdabya and Tobruk: all the polling centres in Ajdabya were attacked and suffered from "total chaos"; polling centres were attacked and voting process suspended in many polling centres. Voting materials were stolen in Attaleah School centre. The following centres were attacked by armed men who threatened the staff of the HNEC to stop the election process: Annahdah School, Independence School, Omar Mukhtar School, Martyrs of the Damour School, Ali Issa School, Wehdah School, and Tarek ibn Ziyad School. Khansaa School centre in Albaydaa: total chaos reported, due to a "brawl in the polling centre". Marej: voting boxes were stolen and the centre was attacked. Ballot boxes were stolen in centre No. (0100741) by a "group of armed men with white guns". Ashbelieh centre in "Gryan": the staff and women voters were attacked: shooting, chaos and stealing ballot boxes. Alquba: Afreeqa centre was attacked by armed men. Ekhlas and Karameh School centre:  ballot boxes were stolen by armed men. Benghazi: Freedom School: explosives (gelatin) were used in polling centres: Ibraheem Jarari School centre was completely destroyed. Brigades of Freedom School: attacked by a number of armed men who "detained the staff", with "total chaos" and "shooting inside the centre". Jamal Abdel Nasser School was "burned in Gmenes". Ajdabya-Wehdah centre: ballot boxes were stolen.  Alabyar: the polling centre was burned. Shohadaa Abo Eareeq centre: polling centre was burned. Omar Mukhtar School centre: attacked and the voting process was suspended. 

  • 06 July 2012: Benghazi: a helicopter carrying polling materials was shot down by "unknown" gunmen while flying over Benghazi. One election commission worker, Abdullah Hosain Albura'si, was killed, whom the HNEC in its website declared the first martyr of the election campaign.

  • 5 July 2012: Oil Terminals: armed Cyrenaicans shut down at least three major oil terminals, including Ras Lanuf, Sidra and Brega. The protesters said the strike will continue for 48 hours, unless the government responds to their demands, which include equal numbers at the General Assembly. The strike has reduced Libya's oil output by about 300,000 bpd.

  • 05 July 2012: Ajdabiya (Ejdabiya): arsonists have burned down a building housing  election materials including ballot boxes, equipment and voting cards. However, the main HNEC office in the centre of Ajdabiya was not affected. It was reported that an official from the HNEC in Tripoli had pledged to replace all ballot slips destroyed by the fire before the 7th of July – the election day.

  • 01 July 2012: Tobruk & Benghazi: the headquarters of the High Commission for Elections in Tobruk was attacked and set on fire. The deputy head of the commission (Moftaph Othman) was attacked as he was leaving the building. The attack came after demonstrators met in Medina Square to announce their rejection of the coming elections and opposition to the controversial seat-allocation within the National Assembly. The violence came just three days after Mustafa Abdul Jalil said it is "impossible" to meet Benghazi's demand for equal members at the National Congress. Similar event also took place in Benghazi, where "protestors" met outside Tibisti Hotel and declared their rejection of the elections. The headquarters of the High Commission for Elections was also attacked and the "ballot papers" were set on fire.

  • 28 June 2012: Kufra: fierce fighting erupted once more in Kufra between Arab and Tebu tribes, resulting in 18 people killed and 82 wounded. Unlike any of the previous clashes, Tebu fighters claim that the Arab Zwai tribe were fighting alongside government troops belonging to Libya Shield. There is no official confirmation of this dangerous development, with one Berber source saying the Libyan army had denied taking part in the fight, while media reports state five soldiers from Libya Shield were killed and 22 were wounded.

  • 26 June 2012: Tripoli: a home-made, TNT bomb exploded outside the Tunisian Consulate in Tripoli, damaging the rear gate to the building, cracking a windscreen nearby, and leaving a hole in the ground; no casualties were reported. An NTC official was reported to have confirmed that the bomb was thrown from a single Toyota car, which according to security camera was occupied by four men. The attack was said to may have been motivated by the handover of Albaghdadi Almahmoudi, Gaddafi's Prime Minister, who was recently extradited from Tunisia to Libya. If so, the attack may be linked to "Loyalists".

  • 18 June 2012: Benghazi: the Tunisian consulate in Benghazi was stormed by an armed group of men, but no casualties were reported. Reuters said the attack was a protest against an art exhibition in Tunisia, which the attackers said had offended their religion. Libyan security forces recovered the building without any resistance, it was said.

  • 14 June 2012: Tripoli - Jado: according to a number of media reports, Zintan rebels continue to add seized cars to their expensive vehicle collection, when they stopped a  brigade commander from Jadu, Sifaw Omar Hablee, along the airport road and attempted to steal his Toyota Land Cruiser. The Berber commander was shot dead when he refused to hand over his car. It is not known why the transitional government is allowing, or not stopping, such criminal activities along such strategic and important road. In addition to the incidents reported earlier (see below), one of the most recent victims was the governor of the Central Bank of Malta, Joseph Bonnici, whose car was stolen when his official convoy was ambushed  by Zintani rebels at a checkpoint on the airport road.

  • 13 June 2012: Benghazi: a women’s beauty shop (Maraiya) was shot at by a group of terrorists as they drove past the premises, causing some damage to the building but no casualties were reported. The business owner was reported to have said she had been threatened recently and was given a month to close down her business, which apparently was said to ‘sexualise’ women.

  • 12 June 2012: Tripoli: clashes broke out outside the Ministry of Health in Tripoli, when a group of "x-revolutionaries" from Benghazi attempted to enter the offices of the ministry to demand medical treatment for the injuries they sustained during the war. They were stopped by Zintani guards who fired into the air to restore order. It was said that the protesters were unarmed, and used stones and clubs.

  • 12 June 2012: Misrata: unknown terrorist group detonated a bomb at the offices of the Red Cross in Misrata, injuring one person and damaging the building. The attack was said to be a copy of the attack on the Red Cross in Benghazi in late May 2012.

  • 12 June 2012: Nafousa Mountain: heavy fighting broke out in and around Mizdah between Zintan and Mashasha rebels, killing at least 32 and injuring 162 people. The clashes were said to have started after a Zintan military unit was stopped by Mashasha rebels at a road block near Mizdah, killing one Zintani person. Heavy fighting ensued, using missiles and rockets; resulting in damage to at least 40 homes and a number of sites including the electricity station and telephone lines, and forcing some residents to flee their homes. On the 14th of June the clashes spread to the town of Shaqiqa, during which the Zintan forces said they have captured former Qaddafi commander Mabrouk Sahban and Khamis Qaddafi's former deputy.

  • 11 June 2012: Tripoli: it was reported that Zintan rebels from Brigade 14 began seizing government vehicles in the capital Tripoli including police cars; apparently because the government failed to settle their "financial entitlements", they claim. Government sources say at least  33 vehicles were taken to the brigade’s base close to the road leading to Tripoli Airport.

  • 11 June 2012: Benghazi: a British convoy carrying the British Ambassador was attacked by a group of terrorists with rocket-propelled grenade (RPG) in Benghazi, resulting in two injuries, but no fatalities. An exchange of fire followed, before the attackers fled the scene. This attack further signals a new wave of  terrorist attacks (see below) against Western targets, thereby making once-safe Libya yet another country in which terrorism and chaos may become the usual hallmarks of imposed democracy. Many Libyans still believe that one needs to prepare the soil before sowing the seeds; let alone transplanting ready-made trees in mud!

  • 09 June 2012: Kufra: clashes between Tebu fighters and government forces returned to the area. Five men were killed and ten more were injured, it was said. It is not clear yet how the fighting started, and as before there are a number of conflicting stories, with both sides accusing each other. One story states that the clashes started after a 24-hour ultimatum to enter the town, given by the Libya Shield forces to Tebu militiamen, was ignored. The Tebu say government forces began shelling the Qaderfi and Ashouri districts and cut power supplies to most areas in the town; while another source says the native Tebu began firing on vehicles belonging to government forces as they were trying to enter their town. The clashes continued on the following day (Sunday, 10/06/2012), using heavy weapons, rockets and tanks, killing 13 and injuring 63 people. Tebu protesters gathered outside the headquarters of the NTC in Tripoli, demanding the head of the Libyan Army, Almanqoush, and the leader of Libya Shield be brought to justice. It was also reported that the claims perpetuated by Libyan media in that Tebu fighters from Chad arrived in Libya to fight along the Tebu of Kufra are false and were instigated  by some Libyan elements intent in plunging the country into civil war. The important thing is that the government has once more added another "investigation" to its already rich collection of investigations; and also continues to send medical aid for the wounded.

  • 09 June 2012: Zuwarah - Ras Ejdir - Abukammash: clashes erupted between border guards from Zuwara and government forces belonging to the Supreme Security Committee. No casualties were reported, but the border point with Tunisia was closed (from the Tunisian side), apparently after the arrest of 12 Tunisian suspected smugglers in Libya; while the Tunisians claim the border was closed from the Libyan side as a precautionary measure – the usual contradictions. According to Libyan sources armed men from Libya Shield Brigade had taken control of the border from the Border Control Police. A second incident developed in Abukammash, the fishing village just before Ras Ejdir, when armed rebels were reported to have set up a fake check point and confiscated machinery belonging to Libya Shield (qurynanew.com/36320). The same source said Libya Shield had confirmed to them that they had taken control of the border; but locals said they have been hearing similar claims for the past nine months or so. After the violent events of April 2012 in the Black Crescent area, the government said it had taken complete control of the border area and that it will implement a final solution to the crisis in the region, but there is no sign of this taking place as of June 2012. Smuggling gangs from all surrounding areas (in both sides of the border) still active, and according to a recent announcement by the Tunisian government the Libyan embassy was communicating with the Tunisian Ministry of Interior regarding the activities of some Libyans living in and around Bengerdan, Djerba and Zarzis. The Tunisian source also said that more than 500,000 Libyans are now living in Tunisia, many of whom are loyal to the old regime. The Libyan government needs to present a final solution to this 9-month saga by taking complete control over the border area, once and for all; stop blaming others; and put an end to the smuggling activities and loyalists' attempts to sow division.

  • 05 June 2012: Benghazi: the American consulate building in Benghazi was attacked by a terrorist group, using an improvised explosive device (IED). According to qurynanew.com/36069#comment-69879, Omar Abdul Rahman brigade claimed the attack was in retaliation for the assassination of Abu Yahah Al-Libi, Qaeda's second-in-command, but official sources declined to confirm the link.

  • 04 June 2012: Tripoli Airport: armed rebels from al-Awfea Brigade militia, from Tarhouna, have surrounded Tripoli airport with tanks, diverting flights to Tripoli's Mitiga airport, and blocking access to the building. It was reported that the rebels had driven their armoured vehicles onto the runway and surrounded the planes. Their demand was the release of their commander, Col. Abu Oegeila al-Hebshi, who they say was being detained in the airport after he was arrested by the Tripoli Security Committee on Sunday night. But according to Reuters, NTC's spokesman, Mohammed al-Harizy, "said Hebshi was taken by unknown armed rebels while travelling between Tarhouna and Tripoli last night". According to the NTC's website, Mustafa Abdul Jalil met with Tarhouna's NTC member and agreed on pulling the armed rebels from the airport and launch an investigation into the disappearance of the militia's leader. Government forces have retaken control of the airport, and all services are back to normal.

  • 01 June 2012: Tripoli: the Libyans have become accustomed to armed rebels stopping them at gunpoint and taking their cars away from them. In some cases families with children were left abandoned by the side of the road. Now the practice is affecting Tripoli's expatriates living in wealthy areas of the capital. One oil company complained that three of its staff had been targeted in the past two months alone. Another company manager was robbed of his car outside his house. There are a number of other cases reported to the police, even though the NTC did say they will use force to stop such attacks on civilians!

  • 27 May 2012: Tripoli: shooting broke out in the 5th floor of Tripoli Tower, resulting in the security system being damaged. The workers at the tower staged a protest on the following day over the repeated breaches of security at the tower, which they said were taking place from time to time, and demanded proper protection from the Ministry of Interior.

  • 27 May 2012: Tripoli: clashes broke out in Addahra area in the capital Tripoli after a man was shot in the head. To seek revenge for the murdered man, the assailants set shops belonging to the attackers on fire in Addahra Street. The area was cordoned off and the attackers were said to have been arrested by the authorities.

  • 26 May 2012: Tripolitania: assassination attempt: the president of the Western Region's Military Council, Mukhtar Fernana, has survived an assassination attempt. It was beleived the attackers were travelling in a convoy of five cars.

  • 24 May 2012: Sirte: a massive explosion hit the base of the Sirte Revolutionary Brigade, killing seven people and wounding a number of others. It is not known how the blast started, but it was said that either a "mystery unit" may have been behind the attack, or else it could have been an accident that ignited the ammunition store.

  • 22 May 2012: Benghazi: just over two hours after the attack on the Red Cross, the Sahara Bank was also hit by a rocket-propelled grenade; damaging the front of the building, but no casualties were reported.

  • 22 May 2012: Benghazi: "Mystery Units" fired two rocket-propelled grenades at the offices of the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) in Benghazi. The attack, once again, took place in the early hours of the morning and therefore there were no casualties. Very much like the earlier terrorist attack in Benghazi, the mystery terrorists seem to have no intention of causing any casualties. On the 3rd of June 2012, Libyaherald said the "Shaikh Omar Abdul Rahman Brigade" claimed responsibility for the attack, and that the brigade accused the ICRC of “evangelistic” operations in Libya and also objected to the use of the cross as the ICRC’s logo (Libya Herald, article: /islamist-militants-claim-responsibility-for-icrc-shelling/).

  • 20 May 2012: Tripoli: an unarmed member of Bani Walid's delegation was hit by an NTC security guard with the back of his gun, fracturing his head. The delegation travelled to Tripoli to meet with NTC officials after the recent events in and around Bani Walid. NTC's spokesman apologised for the incident, and said investigation will follow.

  • 17 May 2012: Benghazi: assassination attempt: a "mystery unit" had attempted to assassinate NTC members Fathi al-Baaja and Khaled Saeh. The incident took place at night at Benghazi Airport. Some media reports claim a local Cyrenaican group was behind the attempt, but the group denied any links with the incident.

  • 13 May 2012: Bani Walid: clashes erupted around the town of Bani Walid between anti-NTC local fighters and pro-NTC troops from Libya Shield. The locals say the troops were there to control Bani Walid and protested their presence.

  • 13 May 2012: Ubari - Murzuk: Mr. Khaled Abusalaha, an election candidate from Murzuk, was assassinated by an armed gang of men some 30 km from Ubari. Apparently the murder took place shortly after Mr. Abusalaha registered his name with the electoral commission for the June Election.

  • 12 May 2012: Tarhouna & Bani Walid: according to media reports clashes broke out near Bani Walid between locals and NTC forces. On Friday the 11th government military units from the Libyan Shield Brigade were sent to Tarhouna and to the area between Tarhouna and Bani Walid.

  • 16 May 2012: Ghadames: Tuareg Disaster Continues: the Berber Tuareg of Ghadames and its surroundings were once more at the heart of the clashes plighting Ghadames and Daraj for some time. According to Adnan Maqoura, a member of Ghadames Local Council, the town was attacked by a "mystery unit" made up of 200 fighters. He also said that the local council was aware of "suspicious" activity in the area for some time and that even though they had informed the authorities in Tripoli and the National Army, no help arrived. The prime minister's office confirms (in its website: pm.gov.ly/news/المتحدث-الرسمي-باسم-رئاسة-أركان-الجيش-الوطني-يؤكد-أن-الهجوم-الذي-تعرضت-له-غدامس-استعملت-خلاله-آليات-وبطاقات-للمجلس-العسكري-للمنطقة-الغربية.html) that the weapons and vehicles used in the attack carried the signs of the military council of the western region and have the name "the national army" written on them; and that an investigation will follow. Col. Ali Alshikhy, the spokesperson of the National Army, said the military council of the western region does not belong to the national army; making one wonder who they belong to? [Ten days later, see above, the head of this military council survived an assassination attempt.] The clashes lasted for seven hours, but continued on and off for a number of days. Some sources say at least fourteen people were killed, including  commander Issa Tlili, and at least 20 others were wounded from both sides. During the last ten months or so Tuareg refugees used the border crossing with Algeria as an escape route, but after the recent clashes the Debdeb crossing point was closed on orders, according to one source, from the Libyan government. Many of the Tuaregs of Libya were forced out of their homes, some of which were knocked down to the ground, since last September (2011) when they were hunted as "Gaddafi's loyalists" ( – even though they fought against Gaddafi; liberated a number of towns in the region; handed over Saifalislam; and had done so many other things to live a life of dignity). Thinking that the situation in Ghadames and Daraj is now returning to normal, many of the Tuareg refugees decided to return home, but unfortunately there are elements in Libya that opposed the return (by all necessary means). Instead a large number of Tuareg refugees found shelter in nearby Daraj, where some Tuareg were said to have staged a protest against the Daraj branch of the National Commercial Bank in Ghadames, because the bank is refusing to process their salaries. The situation of the Tuareg was so severe that Musa al-Koni, NTC's Tuareg representative, was reported to have resigned "over the treatment his fellow Tuaregs in Ghadames", but the NTC spokesman  said no resignation notice had been received by the NTC. Farther south, the Tuareg Advisory Council met on the 20th of May 2012 in Ubari in an emergency meeting to declare support and collect aid for the affected Tuareg families that were forced out of Ghadames and Wadi Awal. They have also appointed an investigatory council to investigate the incidents taking place in Daraj and Ghadames. On the 29th of May 2012 a special unit from the National Army arrived in the town of Ghadames to keep the situation under control. However, a source from Nafusa Mountain (as reported by Ossan) stated that his eyewitness account tells a different story about the events in Ghadames:  he starts by saying that when the revolutionaries of Jado handed over Ghadames airport to the revolutionaries of Ghadames, two planes loaded with heavy and light weapons were landing at the airport. The contents of the planes were given to groups from Ghadames, and then, he adds, the Tuareg who were present at the Tunisian Company were attacked, where nine Tuareg were killed; followed by a large group of women from Ghadames attacking isolated citizens including elders and children, and burning 28 houses and 18 cars. The situation was brought under control, the eyewitness says, when the forces of Border Guards arrived from Jado and Zintan and took control of the junction leading to Ghadames and to the airport; and that after taking over the airport the Border Forces found a plane with 50 wounded, who are not from Ghadames, and other armed groups from Ghadames. Some online sources say the Berber Tuareg of Libya were subjected to an "ethnic cleansing" program for the past six months, in which “illegal detention" in secret locations, torture and murder were practiced against them by military "mystery units"; while other Berberists say the conspiracy against the Imazighen of Libya as a whole continues on schedule to contain the Berbers' demands for constitutional recognition and a share of independence before the elections and the anticipated declaration of the new constitution. One comment left in response to an online article states that Mohammad Salem Adwib was involved in the recent clashes with the Tuareg of Ghadames and Daraj. Of course, Mr. Adwib was the controversial and official military man who was previously involved in the violent events in and around Zuwara and Ras Ejdir, where he appeared in al-Jamil hospital comforting them that the NTC and the Libyan Army is with them all the way.

  • 08 May 2012: Tripoli: clashes broke out outside the Prime Minister's office, resulting in one person being killed and four injured. Media sources say the clashes started after militiamen from Nafusa Mountain arrived to "demand cash from the government", but one eyewitness said they attended to protest peacefully about a number of demands including their injuries sustained during the war, for which to this day they have not received any treatment; constitutional recognition of Berber language; and an end to marginalisation. The government's spokesman and the minister of defence came out and took these demands and went back inside, the eyewitness said. Trouble started only  after another group arrived from Nafusa's Qala'a in a convoy of at least 50 cars mounted with guns, and began firing in the air, he added. Official sources say the protestors broke into the building, forcing the guards to call for help from Tripoli's militias working for the ministry of interior. When the militias arrived, the eyewitness said, fighting broke out between the three groups (two militia groups and the ministerial guards). In a news conference these "demands" were mentioned by the government spokesman Nasser el-Manee as "other demands", but failed to elaborate; while other Libyans commented that these protestors are in fact Gaddafi's loyalists who had such plans to foil the revolution long before liberation. However, according to the transitional Prime Minister, the protestors were not "revolutionaries" but outlawed gunmen pretending to be revolutionaries. In a statement by the Prime Minister's Office (pm.gov.ly/news/693.html), the spokesman said the "revolution" took place against those who are using violence to impose their ideas and that "issues" can only be resolved via "dialogue". As in many earlier incidents, it is hard to conclude who fired what, how and why; and echoing some statements from international media, it seems that Gaddafi's loyalists are now blamed for anything that is "oppositional".

  • 01 May 2012: Tripoli: clashes broke out in three area in the capital Tripoli: in Souq al-Joma fighters attacked a building belonging to the Foreign Ministry; in al-Hadba al-Khadra members of Tripoli Revolutionary Brigade clashed with Shara Ajdabiya Revolutionary Brigade; and in an area near the 24 December Street militiamen were firing indiscriminately at the Interior Ministry and residential buildings. A number of arrests were made, and there was no fatalities.

  • 01 May 2012: Tripoli: hundreds of armed fighters, said to be from the Union of Revolutionary Battalions, had surrounded the National Transitional Council headquarters in the capital, demanding greater participation in the interim government; seats in the new National Congress; and an amnesty for the fighters who took some "actions" during the war. Apparently, according to some sources, Mustafa Abdul Jalil agreed to meet with some members of the group including "al-Azari", the leader, and "Abdurrahman al-Gaja", and even agreed to their first demand, refused the second, and promised to consider the third. Other demands included an extension to the election registration period; proper care for the injured; and proper allocation of grants paid to the fighters.

  • 27 April 2012: Benghazi: Terrorism Begins in Free Libya: a massive blast punched a three-metre wide hole in the walls of the court house in Meidan al-Shajara, Benghazi. NTC spokesman Mohammed al-Harizi told AFP that investigators found graffiti at the scene expressing support for Gaddafi. While according to Reuters, there were three explosions at the building, wounding one person and damaging nearby buildings. Apparently the early-morning explosion(s), reporters said, came just hours after the arrival of NTC officials to hold their regular monthly meeting. The fact that the packages were detonated around 5 am (05:00) indicates that the bombers had no intention of inflicting human casualties! A few days later, official sources said five suspects from the Gadadfa tribe were arrested, but no names were given!

  • 26 April 2012: Benghazi: one person was killed and four were injured in clashes sparked by a "prison-break attempt", which security sources blamed "on radical Islamists".

  • 20 April 2012: Kufra: 3 people died and 17 were injured in clashes between government forces and Tebu locals. Tebu leader Issa Abdelmajid Mansour told AFP that the Tebu were attacked on Friday the 20th of April 2012 by the "Libya Shield" brigade – a peacekeeping military unit working for the Libyan Ministry of Defence. The fighting started after a man from the Zwai tribe "shot dead a Tebu man", to which the Tebu retaliated by firing at cars that went their way, Libya Shield said.

  • 10 April 2012Benghazi: a  home-made bomb was thrown at a convoy carrying the head of the UN mission to Libya. No one was hurt.

  • 10 April 2012: Tripoli: the headquarters of the Libyan government (the Council of Ministers) came under attack by armed groups, who fired shots inside the Prime Minister's office. The government denounced the attack as an attack on the sovereignty of Libya and urged all armed groups to realise the dangers of employing "arms" and "blackmail" to achieve one's goals. The motive apparently was no more than protesting against the NTC's decision to stop the "financial grants" allocated to  fighters. Earlier reports published by the government showed wide-spread corruption regarding the grants and the allocation of grants, where fighters's names were found to be in more than one list; and therefore the decision was only temporary, to bring "fraud" and "draining the country's resources" under control. One solution presented was to transfer the grants directly to the bank accounts of those who were found to be eligible.

  • 31 March 2012: Zuwarah: tension returned to the Black Crescent area after a group of armed men from Alassa, Regdalin and Ejmeil attacked a group of officially-recognised border guards from Zuwarah near Alassa (by the Tunisian border). According to Abdulaziz Bousennouga, the local fighters came across a smuggling point at Zahert Alkhos, via which smugglers smuggle illegal items including alcohol, petrol and other "prohibited items". Doing their job, they closed the smuggling point. The smugglers then went on to open another point, located around 20km from Alassa, to continue their illegal activities. When the Zuwarah unit came across the new smuggling point, they took over the point and confiscated a number of goods. Some of the smugglers however managed to return to Ejmeil, reported the takeover, and returned with a large force of 1000 men, mostly civilians, and waited for the Zuwarah unit to return from Nalut. When the border guards arrived at the site, they were attacked, kidnapped and taken to Regdalin, where they were beaten and tortured, before they were transferred to Ejmeil for further torture and abuse. It is not known exactly how many were kidnapped, with some sources say 25 men, while others say 21, but according to Riyad Bushwashi, Zuwarah's only member at the NTC, 22 men were arrested. One member of the Zuwarah group, who had managed to escape, reported that some of the attackers were carrying the green flag and called Zuwarah's fighters "Nato's agents". The hostages were released on Sunday the 1st of April, with the help of Ejmeil's pro-NTC fighters from "The Protection of Ejmeil Militia"; but when they reached Zuwarah, and showed signs of being tortured, fighting broke out once more around 11 pm on Sunday night. Using tanks, rockets, missiles and other heavy weapons, shells from both sides began to hammer civilian areas indiscrimanately. The shelling continued all night and for most of Monday, and is still going on as of today the 3rd of April 2012. The casualties were taken to Sabratha's hospital, while the more serious cases were taken to Tripoli, since most of the regional hospitals are either not functioning at all or else are poorly equipped. However, it is important to point out that a number of brigades from Zuwarah had refused to take part in the fight against Libyans. The elders of Zuwarah urged the fighters to stop shelling indiscriminately, but they were told to disappear, just as they were told to go away about this time last year.

  • 26 March 2012: Sabha: (Monday): nearly 50 people were killed during the first three days of clashes in Sabha between local militias and Tebu fighters, apparently after a local resident was killed in a dispute over a car. However, as usually is the case, one can never be sure of the facts, since one NTC's spokesperson told reporters that the violence had begun from a dispute over payment for former fighters. By Sunday 100 more lost their lives, giving a total of 150, and nearly 475 were wounded.  It was reported that the Libyan army had sent 600 soldiers to help bring the situation under control, while NTC spokesperson Nasser al-Manee said 3,000 soldiers  had been sent to Sebha. However, NTC's Abdulmajid Saif al-Nasser said he was resigning in protest because  the NTC was not doing enough to stop the violence [1].  On Wednesday the 28th of March 2012 representatives from both sides were reported to have agreed a ceasefire, only for fighting to resume hours later. A second ceasefire was announced by the NTC on Saturday the 31st of March 2012. The transitional Prime Minister el-Keib flew to Sabha on Sunday in an attempt to defuse the tension. According to Reuters [3], "Keib was then heckled by a man who was shouting that the government was late in acting to stop the clashes and called on the military to deal with the Tibu. Keib tried to talk to the heckler but his security detail ushered him into a car to head onto his next meeting, with Tibu elders".

    [1]: montrealgazette.com/news/Libya+struggles+deadly+militia+clashes/6369805/story.html
    [2]: africasia.com/services/news_mideast/article.php?ID=CNG.5ba00d350acdc99f903fb64f33d3cb13.7e1
    [3]: reuters.com/article/2012/04/01/libya-clashes-idUSL6E8F10ST20120401

  • 24 March 2012: Tripoli: armed fighters stormed the Rixos Hotel, in Tripoli. The gunmen fired shots into the air, breaking some items and punching a hole in the ceiling, but no one was hurt. The armed men had detained the Turkish manager of the hotel, apparently, when a Zintan member of the militia was asked to leave the hotel "over an unpaid bill dating back to September", Reuters wrote.

  • 18 March 2012: Tripoli: clashes erupted in the capital between armed residents from Tripoli’s Abu Selim area and an armed militia from Zintan. The two sides fired automatic rifles at each other, leaving one Zintan fighter dead. The fight came to an end after the local militia leaders secured a cease-fire, Mohammed Abu-Gheniya told reporters:

  • 10 March 2012: Tripoli: Libyan Interior Minister Fawzi Abdel Aal has warned all armed fighters to lay down their arms, or face the full force of the law. The minister said the police force now includes 25,000 officers, and that the militias must now make themselves "legitimate" or else the "lions"  will face them. Fighters and tribal leaders had defied a number of deadlines in the past few months.

  • 07 March 2012: Eastern Borders: Egyptian police believe thousands of weapons  are being smuggled monthly into Egypt from Libya across the desert borders, including ammunition, assault rifles, machine-guns, RPG launchers, small caliber rockets, and shoulder-fired anti-aircraft missiles. shabablibya.org/news/the-return-of-the-king

  • 04 March 2012: Tripoli: two British journalists, Nicholas Davies and Gareth Montgomery-Johnson, were arrested by Misrata's Swehli Militia about two weeks ago. The two journalists, working for Iran's English-language Press TV, were reportedly detained while filming at 2:00 am in a "sensitive area" in the capital Tripoli. The commander reported that the journalists were initially "tracked" after suspicious behaviour, and were arrested for entering Libya without a visa and for "possible espionage". [Update: the two journalist were later handed over to the interim government, and then released and returned home on the 19th of March 2012.]

  • 27-28 February 2012: Zuwarah-Ras Ejdir: the land border with Tunisia was closed temporarily, due to a small incident. Unlike what has been reported by the media, sources from Zuwarah had confirmed there was no heavy fighting at the border, no casualties, and the whole fight did not last 20 minutes. Apparently a unit "claiming to belong" to the "Libyan military police" attempted to take control of the border point from the forces of Zuwarah; but when local commanders from Zuwarah contacted the NTC headquarters in Tripoli to confirm the legality of the takeover, the NTC informed them that they knew nothing about this "police unit" and that this unit had no orders from the NTC. Zuwarah's forces then succeeded in expelling the "attacking unit" within 15 minutes, without any casualties from either side.

  • 15 February 2012: Sabha: a cell of ten loyalists was arrested in Sabha. Weapons and explosives were found with the loyalists, said to be planning to destabilise Sabha and the surrounding areas during the 17th of February anniversary.

  • 15 February 2012: Tripoli: nearly 30,000 Libyan fighters took part in a military parade in the capital Tripoli, in anticipation of the first anniversary of the 17th of February. The force included fighters from the various militias of the western region and official units from the Military Council. The Libyan Air Force is also operational and now is patrolling the border areas as well as Libya's air space, the NTC said.

  • 15 February 2012: Benghazi: Libyan Security Forces said they have discovered a number of Sam 7 missiles and rockets hidden in a farm near Benghazi. They also said they are investigating the discovery.

  • 14 February 2012Benghazi: Tibesti Hotel in Benghazi was attacked while the Prime Minister el-Keib was inside the building (libya.tv/مجموعات-مسلحة-تقتحم-فندق-تيبستي-ببنغا). The armed group, firing in the air, entered the building and surrounded the wing in which el-keib was staying in the first floor, and demanded from the prime minster to integrate the unites they represent in the national army and grant them monthly wages. Libya.tv says its source (Libya Today) said el-Keib have signed the lists that were given to him by the fighters.

  • 13 February 2012: Tripoli: Terror Cell Arrested: Zintan fighters have arrested a "terror cell" in Ben Gheshshir, Tripoli. The cell was made of immigrants from the "Eastern Sahara" who spoke "Egyptian dialect" and had fake documents. They were said to be trafficking in drugs, alcohol and arms, and plotting to carry out a number of terrorist attacks to destabilise the capital.

  • 12 February 2012: Kufra: intermittent fighting is also being reported from around the southeastern Kufra area. According to the Chief of the Libyan Army, Yousef Manqoush, the situation will be brought under control via peaceful means. It was said that the fighting still taking place in Kufra is between the Zwai (or Azwaya) tribe and the Tebu. So far nearly 17 people were killed (9 Zwai and 8 Tebu) and 20 injured on Sunday and Monday. Five more people died on Tuesday during the third day of clashes. According to the same report, "Mohammed al-Harizi, spokesman for the NTC, confirmed Tuesday's clashes but said they were of "low intensity and between smugglers helped by foreign elements and thuwar (revolutionaries)."

  • 10 February 2012: Tripoli: Zintan fighters from Jihad Militia in Tripoli have arrested a "5th Column sleeper cell" in the capital. The cell was reported to have been buying weapons and rockets to use to attack civilians in Tripoli. Official sources did warn of the possibility of terrorist attacks by the sleeper cells during the forthcoming anniversary of 17th of February 2012.

  • 25 January 2012: Tripoli: "Security sector workers say theft, infighting and murder are on the rise . . . Last week, two grenade attacks were reported in central Tripoli and gunfights occur on a near-daily basis," Reuters wrote (af.reuters.com/article/worldNews/idAFTRE80O19U20120125).

  • 22-23 January 2012: Bani Walid: militias loyal to the  NTC were driven out of Bani Walid in a gunbattle, after locals refused to recognise the "imposed council", they said.  Four NTC fighters and eight residents were killed. The NTC now set up check points around the city, with reports of planes flying overhead. Heavy presence of units loyal to the new Libyan Army is noticeable in and around Bani Walid. People say green flags were seen in the town, but Reuters said it found none when its reporters visited the area, and that the locals said their protest has nothing to do with "loyalists". Apparently, about 200 elders  from the town decided to abolish an NTC-appointed local council and appoint their own council instead. On Wednesday the NTC was reported to have recognised the new local government nominated and dominated by the tribes of Bani Walid.

  • 21 January 2012: Zuwarah: a gun fight broke out between two local militia groups in Zuwarah, after one group refused to hand over one of their fighters who had attacked the border point at Ras Ejdir. Heavy weapons were used during the fight, but eventually  the perpetrator was ordered to leave the unit (sheltering him) and fighting subsequently stopped.

  • 20 January 2012: Benghazi: protesters in Benghazi broke their way into the headquarters of the National Transitional Government (NTG) in Benghazi. Smashing Abdul Jalil's parked Toyota Land Cruiser, they threw "stones", broke glass windows, and even threw a grenade, as they stormed the building  and demanded the resignation of the transitional "government". According to Reuters, when protesters "hurled empty plastic bottles" at the leader of the NTC, his security forces responded with firing  "tear gas".

  • 13 January 2012: Nafousa Mountain: a fight broke out between Yefren and Assabia. Victims from Assabia spoke to Reuters of severe torture and beating to death committed by the forces of Gharyan ( reuters.com/article/2012/01/25/us-libya-lawlessness-idUSTRE80O18P20120125 ).

  • 4 January 2012: Tripoli: Mustafa Abdel Jalil, the head of the NTC, warned Libyans of "civil war" breaking out in Libya unless the armed militias are brought under control. He said either the Libyans unite and end confrontation or split and there will be a civil war. Exactly what the Libyans need to hear from the leaders at this crucial stage!

  • 3 January 2012: Tripoli: a gun battle broke out between former fighters from Tripoli and dozens of fighters from Misrata, ending with four dead. Smaller gun fights also broke out in Ejmeil and Lajilat.

  • 1 January 2012: Tripoli: the NTC arrested a loyalist cell in Tripoli for plotting to blow up Tripoli's power grid on New Year's eve, and for attempting to re-launch the state TV channel Aljamahiriya.

    Happy New Year

    Summary: hundreds of armed groups, reported sleeper cells, organised gangs, and armed "youngsters" are still heavily armed, and fighting still breaks up here and there, now and then, including along the initially presumed safe coast. It seems that the NTC still is unable to bring the situation under control. Many liberated areas are still surrounded by "sleeper loyalists" and "mystery cells" who still are intent on destabilising the country, especially in the Black Crescent area, Tawergha, Wershfana, Bani Walid, Sabha and around the Kufra area. Residents and reporters speak of  unexploded bombs, rockets, missiles and landmines still littering war sites from across Libya, including a park inside Tripoli itself. Travellers are strongly advised to stay on the main roads, and keep away from sand where landmines may still be buried. 

  • 31 December 2011:Zuwarah: an ongoing trouble between the Berbers of Zuwarah and the Arabs of Ejmeil and Regdalin along the Black Crescent had resulted in a number of skirmishes and fights. Whenever the Berbers attempted to reach their farms (located all around these Arab villages), they were attacked, robed, and left to flee. The situation was brought under control, but reports from Zuwara say clashes still take place. On the 31st of December 2011, two weeks after the border was brought under control, Berbers from Zuwarah were attacked again inside Tunisia.

  • 31 December 2011: Zliten: the secretary of the Libyan Security in Zliten was reported by Libya.tv to have revealed a loyalist cell in Zliten with the aim of destabilising the area, and that the loyalists were in contact with Saadi Gaddafi in Niger, as well as with loyalists in other areas including Wershfana, Bani Walid and in Tunisia.

  • 11 December 2011: Zintan (Nafousa Mountain): clashes also broke out between Zintan and neighbouring Mashasha forces in Wames (190 km from Tripoli) and Shaqiqa: the fight between the militias lasted two days and was stopped after an intervention from the NTC. Houses in Wames were damaged by rocket or/and artillery fire. 

  • 10 December 2011: Tripoli: a gun battle broke out when armed men in vehicles belonging to the new Libyan national army tried to take control of Tripoli's international airport. Mukhtar al-Akhdar, commander of a militia unit from Zintan, contacted the NTC who said they knew nothing about the men who attempted to take over the airport. Analysts said the event may have been linked to the earlier (on the day) attempt on Haftar's life.

  • 06 December 2011: Tripoli: a small fight also broke out between Rujban and Tripoli fighters.

  • 02 December 2011: Janzur: a militia base reduced to ruin and an NTC official killed in Janzur (near Tripoli) by fighters said to be loyal to Zintan forces. The local fighters in retaliation burnt the headquarters of the Zintan forces in Janzur and destroyed their offices and vehicles.

  • 31 October 2011: The Bombing of Libya Stops: the United Nations announced today an end to its military operations in Libya, "with precision".

  • 23 October 2011:  Libya was officially and prematurely declared liberated by the self-appointed leaders of the NTC, while the country was still in a state of war, and while civilian homes, villages and towns were still being shelled.

  • 06 October 2011: Zuwarah: clashes returned to the area when loyalists fired at least three missiles from Regdalin. Two of the missiles landed in the sea and one hit an empty house in Zuwarah. The clashes developed into a battle, using heavy weapons, rockets and missiles, and lasted for three days. Reports from Zuwara said at least 15 Gaddafi loyalist from the Black Crescent and two fighters from Zuwara were killed.

  • 27 August 2011: Zuwarah: the Black Crescent: on the 24th of August 2011 Gaddafi's loyalists still active in and around al-Jamil and Regdalin began shelling the town of Zuwara with rockets. Anees al Fonas, a member of the rebel media council from Zuwara, has reported that rockets and mortars continued to be fired from the nearby towns of Zelten, Regdalin and al-Jamil "for the last 24 hours, nonstop". At least 8 civilians were killed and many more were wounded. One civilian was killed on Monday by a rocket which landed on the roof of his house, and four others were injured. The people of Zuwara say the loyal units attacking them were initially commanded by Saadi Gaddafi (now in Niger) and Alkhwildi Alhamidi from Lajilat (at the eastern tip of the crescent). The forces of Zuwara eventually succeeded in seizing Mazraq al-Shams army base, located between Zuwara and al-Jamil.






Federalism or Decentralisation!


Without immediate dialogue to simplify the promised "democratic process", and without the law to implement the complicated democratic process, the Libyans woke up locked against each other: federalists, Berberists, loyalists, true revolutionaries, pretend revolutionaries, radicals, outlaw militias, mystery cells, and government militias and officials, all blaming each other for others' mistakes, and for failing to negotiate.

There are those who say federalism means dividing the country, in line with those who insist that autonomy means breaking up the country. The NTC itself said federalism is a "decentralisation" that may lead to dividing the country. NTC chairman Mustafa Abdul Jalil told reporters that: "I regret to say that these (foreign) countries have financed and supported this plot that has arisen in the east."

Other Libyans say dividing Libya will be a betrayal of the martyrs' blood; while others rightly believe self-determination has nothing to do with dividing anything at all; simply because federalism is nothing more than an administrative system to share power within the central authority of the capital, and not without. As to why the leaders falsely say otherwise, when the country was in dire need of reconciliation and dialogue, is one of those events associated with the mysterious NTC.

Of course, the fear of taking this a step further in the future, by declaring total independence from central authority, is there; but the way to deal with such fear has nothing to do with denial.  Most Libyans believe that the best way forward is to establish "security" first, then proper "government", before dialogue can explain to people "what's going on", and before final decisions can be discussed, let alone self-taken - with or without the gun.

Taking the law into one's hands by self-declaring regions autonomous is not the right way to lead by example. Imagine the thought of other regions of Libya self-declaring themselves "self-determined", without coordination with the law of Libya, and without a Libyan referendum, and when Libya still does not have a constitution, and when Libya is yet to elect a final government, and while most Libyans still are armed, and while so many other core-issues concurrently breaking Libya apart!

Hence, the head of the Cyrenaican Transitional Congress (CTC), Mr. Ahmed Zubair al-Senussi, was reported, early on, to have said that such federal decisions can only be legally taken once the government is elected and once the constitution is written. The federalists also say they want  a referendum on the issue of "federalism", and if people vote against them, the CTC will be "dissolved”. Did any of these take place?

Declaration of Cyrenaica's Independence

Despite the earlier reported decision by the CTC to wait until an elected government is in place, the head of the CTC, Mr. Senussi, was reported by Solidarity Press [1] to have declared Cyrenaica a federalist region on the 1st of June 2013. Likewise Sayyid Idris (who appointed himself the Emir of "The Emirate of Cyrenaica" in 1949), Mr. Senussi declared himself the administrator of  Cyrenaica [4]. He was also reported to have said that, he will activate the 1951 constitution; form a parliament; form a defence force to defend Cyrenaica; as well as demand from the GNC to fund Cyrenaica via Benghazi's Central Bank.

Libya Herald reported that Mr. Senussi said Cyrenaica was free from terror events and fires when the NTC was stationed in Benghazi, and that the "events" began to manifest only after the NTC was relocated to Tripoli [3].

On the following day of the announcement, LANA [2] reported that the GNC was discussing Mr. Senussi's declaration. Five days later, New Quryna reported [4] that the GNC spokesman, Mr. Omar Hamidan, said the declaration of Cyrenaica as a federal region contradicts with the "legitimacy of the Libyan state" as represented by the national congress (the GNC) and the transitional government (the PMO); and decentralisation gains are sought and provided without the need for "political stands" or political action?


[1] presssolidarity.net/السنوسي-يُعلن-برقة-إقليما-اتحاديا-فدر/
[2] lana-news.ly/ara/news/view/23659/ (المؤتمرالوطني العام يعقد أول اجتماع له برئاسة جمعة اعتيقه بعد استقالة الدكتور محمد يوسف المقريف)
[3] Libya Herald, article: /2013/06/01/cyrenaica-federalists-declare-self-government-on-64th-anniversary-of-emirate-of-cyrenaica-independence/
[4] qurynanew.com/52173



The Creation of The Cyrenaican Transitional Council (CTC)

06 March 2012:

According to Reuters delegates have announced plans for greater autonomy in Benghazi. Initial reports spoke of the group creating a kind of federal council, but there was no official confirmation from the council regarding the creation of the semi-autonomous region. The meeting took place in Benghazi on Tuesday the 6th of March 2012, and was attended by around 3,000 delegates including tribal leaders and militia commanders from Cyrenaica. Mr. Ahmed Zubair al-Senussi, an NTC member and a relative of king Idris al-Senussi, was appointed the head of the new council.  

The same Reuters' report says "An eight-point declaration said the "Cyrenaica Provincial Council is hereby established ... to administer the affairs of the province and protect the rights of its people".

The main points emerged from the conference include the following:

  • The call for the unity of Libya.
  • The call for establishing federalism in Cyrenaica.
  • The call for the NTC to adopt a federal system in all the regions of Libya.
  • The call for re-introducing an updated version of 1951 Constitution.
  • The call for rejecting the unjust February Election Law.

The transitional prime minister had already rejected federal calls, saying that "we" do not need federalism because that would lead to decentralisation, and urged what he called "the silent majority" to act and help keep the country united. However, the people of Benghazi have always complained about the neglect and marginalisation they suffered during the previous government, and about the long distance separating Tripoli from Benghazi, which they say makes administrative work very difficult to accomplish.

All the people of Cyrenaica ask for, at this stage, is to hold a referendum on the issue of "federalism" and let the people decide. But in response, the transitional prime minister had announced today that the government is currently establishing offices in Benghazi and Sabha to facilitate the "administrative transactions" of the citizens of these regions.

The NTC was also reported to have said it will move the ministries of Economy and Oil to Benghazi.
Reuters: uk.reuters.com/article/2012/03/06/libya-east-federalism-idUKL5E8E654Z20120306



Early Calls For Federalism:

05 March 2012:

Libyan Amazigh Congress has condemned Benghazi's call for semi-autonomy and declared that "federalism is not acceptable" in Libya. The declaration came a day before the council's announcement on the 6th of March. Members of the congress also rebuffed Benghazi's claims regarding "marginalisation", stating that almost all towns in Libya had suffered from marginalisation in the past, and if it were the case of marginalisation then the Berbers would have more to say. They say the Berbers were far more marginalised, and that Tamazight was "forbidden" during the previous government. They say the Berbers still do not learn Tamazight in schools, and Tamazight is yet to be officially constitutionalised by the constitution. The congress adds, there is no logical reason to divide Libya under any circumstances.


07 March 2012: "Libya's new 'feds': The call of Cyrenaica", by Dr Larbi Sadiki:

"Libya has had it revolution. What is next: federalism and devolution; or political discord, schism and dissolution?



08 March 2012: in response to  Reuters' Andy Quinn's question regarding Benghazi's call for autonomy, Prime Minister el-Keib said:

"Concerning the East, the issue of a group of not more than few thousand trying to create a state, I can tell you this is democracy in practice; that is simply that . . . I disagree with the approach not because it’s an opinion that people are sharing with others but because it has to be toward a constitution that we are about to create, that this issue should be raised."

  • state.gov/secretary/rm/2012/03/185421.htm



09 March 2012: thousands of Libyans gathered in both Tripoli and Benghazi to protest against Cyrenaica's call for "semi-autonomy". It was reported that nearly 5,000 protesters attended the Tripoli march and over 3,000 in Benghazi. Their main concern, apparently, is that semi-autonomy will lead to splitting the country, even though there are a number of united countries that enjoy autonomy.


16 March 2012: Benghazi Protesters Attacked: thousands of protesters rallying in Benghazi's Freedom Square in support of the semi-autonomy came under attack by a group of armed men carrying knives and guns. One protester told reporters that after the armed gang attacked the crowd and opened fire the protesters panicked and fled the square; while another protester said the armed men attacked an office belonging to Libya Al-Ahrar to prevent the TV station from covering the event. Five people were injured during the clashes, while the one fatality, reported initially, was later said to have been unrelated to the clashes. A building reported as being "a security structure" outside the courthouse in Benghazi was set on fire. The NTC "urged" people to remain calm. For further information, please see: google.com/hostednews/afp/article/ALeqM5h4RMJS2DxGHIot6u_sCQVRDmrTxg


28 March 2012: "Libya should embrace federalism": according to the Guardian, "The transfer of power to Libya's regions is the best way forward, following a revolution against stifling central control" (guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2012/mar/28/libya-federalism-regions-revolution).


Unites States Institute of Peace: Debating Federalism in Libya: Libyans opposed to federalism say it will tear the country apart. But if not responsibly handled, it may be the debate itself which destroys the revolution's promise


17 April 2012:

Youtube video: Cyrenaica renews call for autonomy

Al-Baida: the supporters of federalism in Cyrenaica have renewed their calls for the region’s semi-autonomy. On the other hand a small group of anti-federalism took to the streets of al-Baida calling for the unity of Libya. As stated previously, federalism does not mean dividing Libya, but only transferring a share of "authority" to local regions, where Cyrenaica, for example, will remain part of Libya but with its own authority, functioning under the central authority in Tripoli. 

And even though the backers of semi-autonomy stress that they are calling for a "United Libya" in which authority is distributed evenly between all the regions of Libya, opponents and the media rarely make this distinction!  Due to this, or to lack of any effort from the government to educate people about federalism, people are left misinformed. Libya must and will remain united, no doubt, and there is no one calling for dividing Libya. This is very similar to the way the Berbers had ended up after Liberation: they were accused of "separatism" only to hijack their legitimate demands for "identity", "recognition" and "dignity".



alwatan-libya.com/more-22143-22-الفيدرالية والخيارات المفتوحة ودستور تكتبه اقلام خضراء .. بقلم عصام عبدالله الجهاني



Equal Representation At The National Congress:

It was reported previously that forces loyal to the federalist camp have established a border control point at Hrawa, near Sirte, to mark Cyrenaica's western border. This seemed to clash with the borders set up by the NTC to divide the country into separate military regions, in that Sirte's military region ends at Benjawwad. On the 19th of June 2012, it was reported that Cyrenaica's federalists have set up a road block at Wadi al-Ahmar, between Sirte and Benjawwad, as a protest against the NTC. The NTC continues to ignore their demands to  equal representation in the National Congress. Head of Cyrenaica Transitional Council’s military, Mr. Hamed al-Hassi, was reported by Libya Herald to have said that if the NTC did not accept the federalists’ demands, they would move on to the oil facilities at Brega, Ras Lanouf and  Zueitina to stop the flow of oil. 


27 June 2012:

The government is ready to listen & talk:

The Libyan Transitional Government's spokesman says his government is ready to listen and negotiate with Wadi al-Ahmar protesters. The government had earlier said that some of the demands are negotiable, but other demands have to wait until after the election so that they can be addressed by the elected government.
Read more at pm.gov.ly/news/المانع-يؤكد-اهتمام-الحكومة-الانتقالية-بمطالب-المعتصمين-بمنطقة-الوادي-الأحمر.html

However, according to Mustafa Abdul Jalil, it is "impossible" to meet Benghazi's demand for equal numbers of members at the National Congress:


01 July 2012:

The headquarters of the HNEC in Tobruk & Benghazi set on fire:

It appears that in response to Abdul Jalil's above announcement, New Quryna (qurynanew.com/37549) reported that protesters had attacked and set on fire the headquarters of the High Commission for Elections in Tobruk on Sunday the 1st of July 2012, and that the deputy head of the commission (Moftaph Othman) was attacked as he was leaving the building. The attack came after demonstrators met in Medina Square to announce their rejection of the coming elections and opposition to the controversial seat-allocation within the National Assembly.

Similar event also took place in Benghazi, where "protestors" met outside Tibisti Hotel and declared their rejection of the elections. The headquarters of the High Commission for Elections was also attacked and the files were set on fire. The federalists, backed by some tribal leaders and former rebel groups, have called for boycotting the 7th of July election, which government sources fear may be disrupted. Some Tebu groups as well as the Libyan Amazigh Congress have also called for boycotting the elections.

05 July 2012:

Armed Cyrenaicans Shut Down Oil Terminals:.

According to Reuters shippers said protesters demanding greater autonomy for Cyrenaica have shut down half of Libya's oil exporting capacity by closing at least three oil terminals on Thursday evening. Ras Lanuf, Sidra and Brega stopped loading oil for 48 hours, unless the government responds to the protesters' demands. Oil companies were warned that vessels "would not be able to berth or load while the strike continued". The strike reduced Libya's output by about 300,000 bpd, NOC Chairman Nuri Berruien told Reuters by telephone (reuters.com/article/2012/07/06/us-libya-oil-idUSBRE8650BG20120706).


06 July 2012:

Election Helicopter Carrying Polling Material Shot Down in Benghazi:

A helicopter carrying polling materials was shot down by gunmen while flying over the region of Hawari in Benghazi. One election commission worker, Abdullah Hosain Albura'si, was killed, whom the HNEC in its website declared the first martyr of the election campaign. The Libyan governemnt condemned the killing as the work of the "enemies of the revolution". The identity of the attackers is not known.






Zuwara & The Black Crescent

the black crescent map, showing Gaddafi loyalists around Zuwarah

The Black Crescent: shown by the green flags representing the Arab areas
in which Gaddafi's loyalists remain active as of April 2012.




The Black Crescent refers to the area surrounding Zuwara from all land sides – east, south and west, from Lajilat to the Tunisian border. The only safe side is the sea, if you can swim. In the 7th century the Berbers of Zwagha (nearby Sabratha) fled to the sea, as their city was reduced to rubble before their eyes.

Most Libyans and international media outlets openly speak of Libya being liberated some three months ago. But many Berbers from Zuwara say their city is not liberated yet, because they still are being attacked (as of April 2012) by Gaddafi's loyalists, who reportedly still fly the green flag. Libyans from many other cities say the same, like Benghazi, Sabha, Kufra, Ghadames and Bani Walid, to name only a few. Gaddafi's loyalists from Regdalin and al-Jamil (in the Black Crescent) fought for Gaddafi all the way to the end of the regime and right down to April 2012. While Zuwara's Berber rebels were on the move from the first week of the uprising against the Brother-Leader who called them "Arabs". The recent war between the two sides involved heavy weapons including rockets, missiles and tanks, but once again it escaped the scrutiny of analysts and the attention of the NTC – which Zuwarans say still is refusing to recognise the issue, let alone intervene with help to end the attacks on civilians.


The Black Crescent:  (August 2011 - January 2012)

A number of armed clashes took place before and after the so-called "liberation day", as they still take place today. After rebel forces from Zuwara, Nafousa, Zawya and Misrata captured Tripoli, some of Gaddafi's remaining units fled to the Black Crescent area, where they remained, practically unchallenged by the NTC, despite the fact that the units included some influential figures from the Gaddafi administration. The people of Zuwara say the loyal units attacking them were initially commanded by Saadi Gaddafi (one of the colonel's sons, now in Niger) and Alkhwildi Alhamidi (from Lajilat, at the eastern tip of the crescent), who is one of the original 12 of the 1969 coup, and who later was reported to have fled to Morocco, shortly after his house was reportedly bombed by the UN-authorised forces.

On the 24th of August 2011 (just as they lost Tripoli) they began shelling the town of Zuwara as well as its seaport. Anees al Fonas, a member of the rebel media council from Zuwara, has reported that rockets and mortars continued to be fired from the nearby Arab towns of Zelten, Regdalin and al-Jamil "for the last 24 hours, nonstop". At least 8 civilians were killed and many more were wounded. One civilian was killed on Monday by a rocket which landed on the roof of his house, and four others were injured. The forces of Zuwara eventually succeeded in seizing Mazraq al-Shams army base, located between Zuwara and al-Jamil, and temporarily succeeded in keeping the loyalists at bay.

On the 27th of August 2011 Zuwara forces took control of Ras Ejdir border with Tunisia, after fighting with x-government loyalists, who fled back to the safe haven of the Black Crescent. Both the Berber and the Independence flags were raised over the border point, in declaration of Free and United Libya.

On the 6th of October 2011 at least three more missiles hit Zuwara, two landed in the sea, and the other on an empty house. The missiles were fired from the Regdalin area. Three days later the battle was still raging, with both sides sustaining more casualties. Early reports from Zuwara say at least 15 loyalists and two fighters from Zuwara were killed. On the 8th of October 2011 another rocket landed in Zuwara, but the occupants of the destroyed house were in Tunisia at the time. Even after Liberation was prematurely declared on the 23rd of October 2011, rockets and missiles continued to fall on civilian homes in Zuwara, when others were celebrating liberation and the completion of UN's military operations "with precision".

Many Berber revolutionaries and members of Zuwara's local council had openly criticised both the UN-authorised forces and the installed NTC for not doing enough to enforce the "protection of civilians" as called for by the UN mandate itself. They have sent coordinates to the commanders of the operation, Zuwara's NTC member said, but help never arrived.

Allied rebel reinforcements from nearby Sabratha and Zawya could not reach Zuwara, because loyalist forces were then in control of some parts of the area between Sabratha and Zuwara. To avoid the conflict escalating into a tribal war, Arabs against Berbers, it was eventually decided to bring a bigger military force from Misrata to keep the two sides apart. The Misrata  force stayed in place until the first week of January 2012, when they suddenly left the area; thereby leaving Zuwara to defend itself, just it did before liberation.

Ever since, whenever the Berbers attempted to reach their farms (located all around the Arab villages), they came under attack. Their cars were either smashed or stolen; they were beaten up, robbed and left to flee home. With Misrata rebels back at home – understandably they have so much to do elsewhere, one can only continue to live in fear and terror when others are compiling glossy reports at the Rixos hotel for the media to play at home.

Many Berbers left their homes for Tunisia, after living conditions in Libya became impossible, due to a number of reasons including the UN harsh sanctions and embargos (which always affect poor civilians more than anyone else), the scorching heat of the Libyan summer sun, and the horrors of war itself.

With the shops empty, and the economy under siege, those who stayed in Zuwara often drove to nearby Tunisia for shopping, but most often there too they get attacked by loyalists living inside Tunisia (and by Tunisians as well). In the way back to Zuwara they get ambushed just before Regdalin by Regdalin's armed loyalists, and loose everything they bought in Tunisia (and their passports and whatever cash they have left), and go back home empty handed once again. Strange but true.

The frequent attacks took place near the border and near Bengerdan, in Zukra, where they were stopped, their money taken, and their cars broken – almost the exact revenge attacks seen at the heart of the crescent and farther east, while the green flag was seen waving on top of lamp posts (inside Tunisia).

With no authority or law in sight, the Berbers of Zuwara said they decided in early December 2011 to defend themselves, as they did before liberation. In addition to defending Zuwara they were also doing the government's job by guarding and defending Libya's border with Tunisia at Ras Ejdir. For the rich government of Libya to leave such strategic borders unguarded and wide open for criminal activity is something no sensible government on earth would dare contemplate.



Zuwara Media Centre

Zuwara Police Station, 31 December 2011.


The official reaction to all of this is perhaps summed up by Libya's new ambassador in Tunis, who warned that there are those individuals who want to create divisions between Libya and Tunisia – as if Libya and Tunisia were one and united country! Both authorities eventually intervened and closed down the border point for two weeks. On the 15th of December the border was reopened after an agreement was reached between the Libyan and Tunisian authorities.

However, two weeks later, on the 31st of December 2011, Berber citizens from Zuwara were once again under attack near Bengerdan (inside Tunisia) by both Tunisians and loyalists. They were stopped while driving through, hit with stones, their money and property taken, and their cars smashed or even taken. The victims now have no option but to report the attacks to Zuwara's Police Station; the station passes the reports to Tripoli; Tripoli goes silent (because it is "helpless", it says); and no one hears anything anymore of the reports.

Some critics said the Libyan government had "failed" to secure the border ever since the presumed "liberation" was prematurely declared; while according to aawsat.com (الشرق الأوسط), Libya's interim president, Mustafa Abduljalil, had pointed out that Gaddafi's loyalists are still attempting to destabilise the country and sow the seeds of division across Libya. Probably to divert attention away, Mustafa Abdul Jalil was reported by The New York Times [3] to have:

"acknowledged that his government had failed to act quickly enough to restore stability. His spokesman, Mohammed al-Hareizi, said Tuesday that security officials in top posts must do more . . . warning that ministers could be replaced soon."


Black Crescent Updates (1)

  • 25 January 2012: the transitional prime minister had announced that the Libyan Air Force was operational, and that the border areas were being patrolled from the air. The Libyan government will be hosting a "regional security" meeting in Tripoli on the 9th of March 2012, followed by a "ministerial meeting" on the 11th of March 2012, over "border security".

  • 01 February 2012: there is growing support for the NTC in al-Jamil area, as more of its residents now seem supportive of the new transitional government of Libya. Al-Jamil now has its own "Local Council", approved by the NTC, and is headed by Mr. Fathi Ali Alhamrouni.

  • 02 February 2012: a small incident took place at Ras Ejdir border with Tunisia, leading to the border being temporarily closed.

  • 28 February 2012: Ras Ejdir land border with Tunisia was closed once more, due to fighting. Here is what Libya.tv reported at (libya.tv/?p=43958): it said that Tunisian sources had confirmed that heavy fighting erupted on the 27th of February 2012 between rebel fighters from Zuwara and Libyan police forces for the control of the border point. Its source also confirmed that fighting did not reach Tunisia, and spoke of rumours of casualties. The clashes, Libya.tv says, returned after the Libyan police captured the border point from Zuwara's rebels last Saturday (25/02/2012), but the rebel fighters did not accept the takeover and returned on the 27th to "re-take the border from the Libyan police".

But according to confirmed sources from Zuwara, there was no heavy fighting, no casualties, and the whole fight did not last 20 minutes. Apparently a unit claiming to belong to the "Libyan military police" attempted to take control of the border point from the forces of Zuwara. Local commanders from Zuwara contacted the NTC headquarters in Tripoli to confirm the legality of the takeover. The NTC replied by saying they knew nothing of this "police unit", and that this unit had no orders from the NTC. Fake checkpoints also appeared between Ras Ejdir and Zuwara (and also across Libya), confiscating people's belongings including their passports, and in some cases kidnapping "human beings".

However, Zuwara's forces had succeeded in expelling the intruding unit within 15 minutes, without any casualties from either side. Some sources in Zuwara said the unit appeared to include "unknown fighters" in addition to the military police. These mystery fighters, or units, have also attacked the Berbers' holy tomb at Sidi Said, and seem to be behind a number of similar attacks on holy shrines across not only Libya but the whole region –  from Timbuktu to Baghdad. But like before, no one bothers to follow up the sequence of  (related) events; the news fade out (overshadowed by fresh content); and then clashes re-erupt once again.

There is no doubt that locals can see that security issues are being ignored in the west, where volunteers were left to defend themselves and Libya's borders as well; and it is almost certain that there are those who would exploit such tribal differences to their advantage. The good news is that many Libyans are aware of these old games, as they were indeed exploited in the past (during the countless wars of the previous century) – perhaps to the disappointment of some. The only problem they have is that the government is either "unable" or "reluctant" to deal with the rebel opposition, the radical groups, and the "mystery cells" created during the liberation process.

Claims to Exterminate Zuwarah

According to "The New York Review of Books", Nicolas Pelham wrote: "In what Riqdaleen fears is a precedent, Zwarans have evicted some seven hundred Arab workers from the housing compound of their chemical factory, Abu Kammash, saying the workers were complicit in Qaddafi’s plot to wipe their Berber town off the map. Since its opening in the 1980s—atop what Zwarans say is an old Amazigh graveyard—the plant employing these workers had spewed mercury and acid into the sea, poisoning the Zwarans’ fishing waters and population" [nybooks.com/articles/archives/2012/jun/21/libya-cracking/].

See Abu Kammash for more on the Chemical Complex.



Black Crescent Updates (2)

Saturday, 31 March 2012:

Five months after the premature declaration of Libya's liberation, Gaddafi's loyalists still free, well armed, and openly attacking Libyan government border forces. The NTC was informed, time and again, members of Zuwara's NTC and local council say, but again no one seemed the slightest bothered – probably because they were busy creating hundreds of "political parties" in the capital, on time for the July 2012 elections. Now we are publishing our second update to clarify the confusion surrounding the Black Crescent events. Our main concern is the misinformation perpetuated by the media regarding the latest fiascoes to emerge from the Black Crescent. To allow both sides of the conflict an equal opportunity we have included video interviews with the head of the kidnapped government unit from Zuwara; an interview with the head of Zuwara's Military Council; and two interviews with the head of al-Jamil's Militia.

How Did The March 2012 Clashes Start?

Tension returned to the Black Crescent after a large group of people of various ages, ranging from 15 to 55 years old, from al-Jamil, Alassa and Regdalin attacked a group of officially-recognised border guards near Alassa (by the Tunisian border). This means that the latest attack was orchestrated against the Libyan government, and has nothing to do with Zuwara as such. Again this distinction is rarely made by established media, for some reason or another.

According to Abdulaziz Bousennouga [1], head of Zuwara's Military Council, the local fighters whose duty is to protect Libya's western borders came across a smuggling point at Zahert Alkhos, via which smugglers smuggle illegal goods into Libya including alcohol, petrol and other "prohibited goods". Doing their job, they closed the smuggling point. The smugglers then went on to open another point, located around 20km from Alassa, to continue their illegal activity. When the Zuwara unit came across the new smuggling point, they took over the point and confiscated a number of goods, only to be accused of wanting the spoils for themselves.

Some of the smugglers however managed to return to al-Jamil, reported the takeover, and returned with a large force of 1000 men, mostly civilians including teenagers and elders, and waited for the Zuwara unit to return from Nalut. As soon as Zuwara's border guards arrived at the site, they were attacked, kidnapped and taken to Regdalin, where they were beaten and tortured, before they were transferred to al-Jamil for further abuse.

The attackers are mostly from Enwayel tribe, one of the hostages said, many of whom are still openly loyal to the ousted regime. The incident led to a bloody battle breaking out between Zuwara and al-Jamil and Regdalin, in which tanks, rockets and missiles were used to shell civilian areas, indiscriminately, by both sides. As usual the media was eager to jump into hasty conclusions; the NTC blamed its forces while on duty protecting Libya's borders; and some Libyans, if not many, typically hailed the banner of "division" as the only excuse they have for their inability to grasp the betwixt truth – often lies in between.

It is not known exactly how many were kidnapped, with one source saying 21 men, Reuters said 25, some said 29, and AP said 34, but according to Riyad Bushwashi, Zuwara's only member at the NTC, 22 border guards were kidnapped. One lucky member of the Zuwara group, who had managed to escape, reported that some of the attackers were carrying the green flag and chanting pro-Gaddafi slogans.


Youtube video: one of the released hostages describes the attack on his unit .

The commander of the authorised unit says they were stopped and taken to Alassa's council's office, where they were surrounded by a large number of people (most of whom were hiding before the unit arrived), and subsequently attacked and beaten. He ordered his men not to retaliate, after which, he says, were taken to Regdalin, where they were subjected to more beating, tortured and even accused of being "traitors" and "Nato's agents", with some openly proclaiming "Gaddafi is in their blood". The attackers, he says, said they do not recognise the authority of the NTC and as a result they tore the document he presented them with to prove that they are employees of the ministry, saying they recognise no such authority. From Regdalin they were then taken to al-Jamil, where they were subjected to further abuse and torture.


Youtube video: Zuwara's NTC member Riyad Bushwashi speaks about the attack.

NTC's Riyad Bushwashi says intelligence reports continue to arrive in Zuwara ever since liberation day, warning of the border being unprotected and used by Gaddafi's loyalists to move between Bengerdan (in Tunisia) and Regdalin and al-Jamil (in Free Libya). He also said Zuwara still is at "unease" ever since liberation. Another speaker, Esa Alhamisi, said the government is "intentionally neglecting" this area.

Why should the people of Zuwara endanger their lives and their community to do the government's job?
Why is the NTC still reluctant to protect Libya's borders under the pretext of being "powerless" and "helpless"?
Libya's air force is fully operational, the government said, and yet it is no where to be seen.
One of the first systems setup by the NTC shortly after liberation was the Libyan Secret Service, whose job, they said, was to "root out Gaddafi's loyalists", but instead mystery cells appeared everywhere, blasting civilian targets, assassinating Libyans, desecrating holy shrines, attacking schools and hospitals, and sowing the seeds of division – practically unchallenged by the installed authorities. Zuwara's holy tomb of Sidi Said was attacked by one such unit in late February 2012.

01 April 2012 (Sunday): the kidnappers release the hostages

The 22 hostages were released on Sunday the 1st of April 2012. Initially, it was reported that officials from the Ministry of Defence and military officials from the local councils of Zawya, Sabratha and Nalut had intervened and conducted talks with the kidnappers over the release of the hostages. But since when is the NTC conducting "negotiations" with Gaddafi's loyalists? They have refused Gaddafi's offer (before his grotesque death) to settle the issue without the need for war.

Then there was the news of a manifesto coming from Zuwara, stating that the forces of Zuwara will attack al-Jamil to release the hostages and resolve the issue, if the NTC does not intervene. But surprisingly, according to the statements of the Berber hostages themselves, the release was masterminded and conducted by a militia from al-Jamil itself, namely "The Protection of al-Jamil Militia"; for which the hostages were very grateful.


Youtube video: this video shows some of the signs of torture the hostages were subjected to by the attackers.

One of the hostages (in the above interview) praised al-Jamil's militia for their heroic efforts to protect them. The problem with this militia, the hostage said, is that they are very small in number, to stand up to the majority loyalists in their area – just as the NTC itself was (when its members' identity were kept secret, for security reasons, they said).

The hostages were quickly bungled in their cars, smuggled out, and taken to a farm nearby – driving through the night with the lights off. They were taken to a safe house, counted (to make sure none were left behind), and treated very well. This clearly shows that there is no such thing as "racial tension" between the nearby Arabs and Berbers of Zuwara, as propagated by various media outlets including some Libyan "ones". Only the atrocities of troublesome outlaws whose actions were hijacked to create a civil war. Give it up warmongering vultures; leave the people alone.

01 April 2012: fighting erupts once more

It is not clear yet at this stage how the battle began, and only a professional investigation will lead to establishing the facts. When the released hostages reached Zuwara, and showed signs of being tortured, fighting broke out around 11 pm on Sunday night. Confirmed reports from Zuwara, supported by the statements of many of the inhabitants of Zuwara, say hardly any fighting took place between al-Jamil and Zuwara (as was reported by the media), and that most of the fighting actually took place between Regdalin and Zuwara; and that it was Regdalin that initiated the shelling of Zuwara.

Using tanks, rockets, missiles and other heavy spoils of war, shells from both sides began to hammer civilian areas, indiscriminately. The shelling continued all night and for the most of Monday, and still is going on as of today (the 3rd of April 2012). Moreover, this is not to say that the Berbers of Zuwara as a whole are involved in this latest battle, since a number of brigades from Zuwara had refused to take part in the fight against Libyans. The elders of Zuwara urged the fighters to stop hostility, but they were told to disappear, just as they were told to go away about this time last year. [Even a year later, Berber leaders and GNC members still say they will fight if Berber language is excluded from the expected draft constitution, while the older generation as always strive to avoid conflict at all costs, simply because they know conflict never builds anything but destruction.]

The Berbers of Zuwara blame the Arab "loyalists" and the NTC. The Arab loyalists blame the Berbers and the NTC. While the NTC blames both Arab and Berber militias, while urging the youth to respect the law they do not have. It seems that both the NTC and the Libyans are locked against each other, blaming each other, fighting each other, without anyone of them being able to reason and attend positively to the job of rebuilding the destroyed infrastructure of Libya. Were resolutions 1970 and 1973 ever been implemented? How long before the "protection of civilians" is fully implemented in Libya?


What is al-Jamil saying regarding this latest incident?

Youtube video: Nasr Addin Allafy, head of al-Jamil Militia, gives his side of the story.

According to this report nearly 12,000 Libyans fled to Tunisia in the past few days, due to the recent conflict. When Nasr Addin was asked to give his side of the story regarding the shelling of Zuwara with rockets, he replied that these claims are not true. When the presenter replied: "how", he said the Zuwara unit entered al-Jamil without any legal permission. And when she asked him: why did they enter al-Jamil? He replied "for personal reasons . . . I do not know . . . they are smugglers . . . and for other reasons."

And when she asked him to elaborate and explain how Zuwara's hospital is unable to cope with the casualties, he said: when the hostages were released and handed over to Zuwara, they began shelling al-Jamil, and "as we speak", he adds, there is a committee from the government right here and they were shelled from Zuwara.


Who owns the land in and around al-Jamil and Regdalin and beyond?


Mr. Nasr Addin Allafy denies the existence of Gaddafi loyalists in al-Jamil.

In the above video Mr. Nasr Addin Allafy denies the existence of any Gaddafi loyalists in al-Jamil and Regdalin; and even said the fighting was between "the Libyan army" and some people from Zuwara involved with "drugs". When he was asked to elaborate on stopping the Berbers of Zuwara from reaching their farms, he denied that they were stopped from entering their farms.

As some of you may already know, the whole of Libya originally belonged to the Berbers before the Arabs' arrival from Arabia, and therefore many of the farms in and around al-Jamil and Regdalin and even beyond still belong to the Berbers of Zuwara to this day. Gaddafi's policy to confiscate Berber land had achieved some success, but the Berbers of today hope the new government of free Libya will assist them to reclaim their lands, and property.

Throughout the past six months the people of Zuwara were attacked, beaten and robbed whenever they attempted to reach their farms; probably in an attempt by (some of) the Arabs of al-Jamil and Regdalin to exploit the effected chaos and lawlessness to seize these farms. A 70-year old Berber man from Zuwara was attacked and beaten when he tried to reach his farm. This is what happens during war all over the world: entire communities get displaced, refugee crisis, and loss of land, possessions and almost everything - depending on the severity of the war. See the following interview for how administrative offices and bank documents were transferred from Zuwara to al-Jamil and Regdalin by such outlaw militias.

Head of Zuwara's Military Council, Abdulaziz Bousennouga, recalls the land issue:


Youtube video: head of Zuwara's Military Council speaks about the land issue .


This is our English translation of the Arabic interview:

Q: did the army establish control over the area or not?
A: some areas are under control and the clashes have stopped since last night. We have stopped firing before the government's intervention.

Q: will the army prevent the recurrence of the clashes in the future?
A. we hope so, we hope so.

Q: did the army manage to collect the weapons from Zuwara's fighters?
A: this is not possible.

Q: why?
A: if the government decides to collect all the weapons from all Libyan areas then we will accept this, but collecting weapons from Zuwara alone is not reasonable.

Q: but if weapons are not collected then the clashes will continue between Zuwara and  al-Jamil and Regdalin.
A: the clashes will not continue if Zuwara's rights are met.

Q: what are these rights?
A: we have demanded from the government, over and over again, to return our rights robbed from us: first of all the inhabitants of Zuwara cannot reach their farms in and around al-Jamil and Regdalin: is it okay for the people of Zuwara not to set foot on their farms? There are other rights robbed from Zuwara during the existence of the kataeb ('Gaddafi's militias') in Zuwara, like the transfer of administrative offices and bank documents to al-Jamil and Regdalin, and there are documents and files to prove these actions; all these rights must be returned to Zuwara.

Q: what will your response be if the army used force?
A: wisdom is required to resolve issues, not force.


The Response of The NTC And The Foreign Media

To the surprise of the locals, NTC officials said the incident happened at a checkpoint outside al-Jamil, and not by the Tunisian border, without providing any evidence for this. They even accused the forces of Zuwara of acting aggressively towards the people of al-Jamil, and that they were "exaggerating" the incident.

The manager of Libya For The Free Channel, Sadeq Solthan Dehan, was reported to have resigned because of the channel's inability to report the events properly in Zuwara, Sabha, Kufra and elsewhere. While Reuters provided a third story, which illustrates the usual contradictions coming from the NTC, on which foreign media outlets seem to depend. Here is how Reuters [2] reported the incident:

"Fighters from the nearby town of Al-Jumail had detained 25 members of the Zuwara local militia, leading to a tense stand-off between the two groups, a representative of the Zuwara council and an Interior Ministry official told Reuters. "The origin of the problem was that there was a group from Zuwara hunting in the area near Al-Jumail and they shot and killed someone from Al-Jumail by mistake," the Interior Ministry official said."

Reuters, obviously as they had stated, are quoting others for such "hunting adventure", widely repeated by both Libyan and Arab media, but isn't it the duty of the media to investigate and report what others fail to see or want to hide? Why no one bothers to listen to the victims themselves and see what they have to say?


Youtube video: more tragic stories.


One speaker says that they have informed the Libyan media, Reuters and Aljazeera about what had happened, and yet they went and took NTC's version of the event. He asked: why is this marginalisation and denial of the incident? There were similar cases in the past, where men from Zuwara were captured, tortured and even killed, and yet the transitional government, according to one Zuwara NTC member, has no clear policy regarding the protection of civilians in and around the Black Crescent, nor any strategy to effectively protect its borders.

Initially, as reported in the previous update, a unit from Misrata was brought to the area to keep the two sides apart, but the unit left the area soon afterwards (on the first week of January 2012) – probably feeling fed up with it all.

The people of Zuwara have been calling for help from Libya's transitional government ever since, but the NTC as usual only "promises" and "urges" all parties to respect the law they do not have. Libya.tv presenter, Sana Almansouri, asked a number of politicians from Zuwara if these promises will ever stop, and one speaker responded by saying the NTC is "weak" and has no power over the militia groups and therefore their inability to do anything to end this problem for good. She also pointed out that the kidnappers showed no respect for Zuwara nor for the law, because they had attacked officially-appointed guards who have been assigned to the area by the ministry.

Youtube video: the people of Zuwara call for help .

  • Zuwara Media Centre: youtube.nocookie.com/user/ZuwaraMC
  • [1]: youtube.nocookie.com/v/yH3N2SZK7zE
  • [2]: reuters.com/article/2012/04/01/libya-clashes-idUSL6E8F10ST20120401
  • [3]: nytimes.com/2012/04/04/world/africa/clash-of-libyan-militias-kills-at-least-22.html
  • [4]: amnesty.org/en/for-media/press-releases/libya-deaths-detainees-amid-widespread-torture-2012-01-26



  • Fighting has stopped, before the NTC sent a "peace committee" to negotiate a ceasefire. The NTC was criticised for not acting to stop the war during the first 3 days, and Mustafa Abduljalil did admit the NTC had not acted soon enough.

  • It is not clear yet the exact number of confirmed casualties, but the reported number of people killed is 20 people, and the number of people injured is 147.

  • Confirmed reports from Zuwara say 15 people died and more than 200 were injured from Zuwara alone. Most of the injured were treated in Zuwara, some were flown to the capital, and 30 seriously wounded were flown abroad. (Some of the names are published in this list: facebook.com/notes/أسود-زوارة/اسماء-الشهداء-والجرحي-من-ابطال-مدينة-زوارة/266012583486009)



Black Crescent Update (3): Saturday, 07 April 2012:

In this update Libya's Minister of Defence, Col. Osama Juwaili, confirms Zuwara's side of the story regarding the above incident. Temehu.com has translated the interviews into English, so that our English readers can have the opportunity to find out the truth, seemingly denied to them by their media. 


Libya.tv's interview with the Minister of Defence, Col. Osama Juwaili.

To allow fair coverage, the program presenter interviewed representatives from all three sides: Osama Juwaili (from the NTC), Nasr Addin Allafy (president of al-Jamil's military council), and Subhi Juma (the spokesman of Zuwara's military council).

The presenter starts with asking the Minister of Defence:

Q: what are the official details of the events in western Libya?

A: at the start there were a number of revolutionaries from Zuwara returning from Nalut and were intercepted by a group,  "somewhere near" Alassa, where they were "seized" and taken to Regdalin. We heard the news immediately and appointed a committee to investigate the incident. First of all, we were told there was one person killed in Regdalin, but then thankfully we learnt that he was only injured. On the following day we were assured by Regdalin's council that "they" will be released and we thought the issue was resolved. But then complications developed after they were released, and subsequently fighting began.

Q: you said they were taken to Regdalin, although the correct term here is not clear whether it was "hostages" or "they", but then almost all Facebook pages say they were taken to al-Jamil and were later released from al-Jamil. What is your opinion here?

A: naturally, the committee we appointed to follow up the incident, which included one person from Regdalin and another from Zuwara, told us they were taken to Regdalin, and so I suppose it was Regdalin, but "I do not know exactly" if it was Regdalin or al-Jamil!

Q: the point in question is that the hostages were tortured in al-Jamil, their weapons were confiscated, and that they were released from al-Jamil. Anyway, we shall proceed with the next question: Zuwara says the hostages had official permission from the Ministry of Defence to patrol this area, is this true?

A: as a Minister of Defence I cannot know about all the appointed and official militias across Libya, but a few days later I have examined the document and I can confirm that it does officially appoint one person by name from Unit 15 to patrol the area and this document is signed by the Border Security, and that according to military law such assignments are often appointed by name to the person in question.


official document authorising unit 15 

A copy of the official document authorising Unit 15 to secure and guard the Libyan-Tunisian border.

Please click for a larger image.

Q: after the events, can you confirm the Zuwara revolutionaries belong to the Ministry of Defence or not?
A: these "letters of assignment" or "letters of appointment" are temporary, but officially they are not the same as "military contracts" . . .

Q: are you saying they do not belong to the Ministry of Defence?
A: well, it seems that you are paying attention to details, and yourself you can confirm these things . . .

Q: honourable minister, the people of al-Jamil say these people are "gangs", while the hostages say they are official guards working for the Ministry of Defence, and the Libyan people need to know the truth, since this is a "big problem".

A: to be honest this is not a "big problem"; if these people are from the military, then the case should be followed, but I do not know what "unit 15" is, as I told you.

Q: another question honourable minister regarding Mohammad Salem Adwib, who was involved in a number of incidents in this area: the Libyans need to know if this person is officially entrusted by the Ministry to carry out his activity.

A: no, he is not officially appointed ("ghayer mokhawwel") by the NTC.

[Temehu's note: this person is now wanted by the government. He was reported to be hiding somewhere around al-Jamil (see end of this update for video). Months later, he was reported to have been involved in the incidents around Ghadames too.]

Q: the question is that this person, Mohammad Salem Adwib, who stated that the Libyan government is supporting and fully behind al-Jamil, appeared in a number of incidents in and around Ras Ejdir border, and even appeared in Libyan official TV channels, and therefore does he officially represent the ministry or not?

A: no, he does not; and anyone in their right mind would know that the government will not take sides.

Q: okay, another question: do you think that the conflict between Zuwara and al-Jamil can be considered resolved?
A: we cannot say that we can confirm that ceasefire had been implemented. But efforts are underway to establish a final solution to this issue.

Q: but we had a number of confrontations in the past in this area and on each time we were told a permanent solution will be implemented, and therefore what is your opinion regarding the "final solution", and when will this final solution be effected?

A: all concerned parties are expected to take part in this, and everyone is positively seeking a solution, but do not expect a solution from the government under the current circumstances. We are in a country that has no name, no constitution and no law, and therefore this is a transitional period similar to a state of war, during which the received criticism is mainly a criticism of the failure of the Libyan people to establish a country.


The presenter then asks Subhi Juma, the spokesman of Zuwara's military council about his opinion:

Q: what is the latest?

A: well, fighting has stopped since the day before yesterday around 7pm, and then the "country of Libya" announced, even though a bit late, the ceasefire at 10:00pm. It was us, Zuwara's Military Council, that ordered the ceasefire. Regarding the events, he went on to say: "I would like to reply to the honourable Minister" that the arrest took place in Alassa, even though he said he did not know where exactly, and that the hostages were kept in al-Jamil and not in Regdalin as the Minister said. It has been six days now and the Minister still says he does not know much about the incident; he still does not know who was appointed and who was not; and why avoid responsibility regarding the official appointment of the border unit from Zuwara. It is this confusion that led to us being where we are now.

The presenter then returned to ask the honourable minister about Subhi Juma's statement:


Q: minister, did you hear what Subhi has just said?
A: yes.

Q: what is your opinion?

A: well, all I said is that the arrest occurred somewhere near Alassa [by the Tunisian border] but I am not an expert on the area; and that all I remember is that the committee appointed to investigate included one from Zuwara and another from al-Jamil, and therefore I thought they will find out all the details relating to the issue. One cannot be aware of all the details from all areas of Libya, he added.

Q: minister, if the Ministry of Defence claims it does not know the details of a big incident like this, then who is expected to know?

A: . . . . (silence).

Q: minister, are you still listening?
A: the line cut off.

Q: I repeat the question: if the Ministry of Defence claims it does not know the details of a big incident like this, then who is expected to know?

A: the minister may not be aware of all the details, but there are certain assigned committees that should know, and if they ask me where the "points" (or locations) of the Libyan army then I do not know; I cannot tell you where these points are, naturally I am not aware of all the details.

The presenter then moves on to speak with Nasr Addin Allafy, president of al-Jamil's Military Council:

Q: hello Nasr Addin Allafy, are you there?
A: hello.

Q: you heard the minister and the spokesperson of Zuwara's Military Council. What is your opinion?
A: there was a ceasefire, which was respected by both al-Jamil and Regdalin, but some fighters from Zuwara did not respect the agreement.

Q: how?
A: someone from Zuwara breached a check point in Regdalin and fired a "106 missile". He was arrested.

[Back to the Minister of Defence]

Q: minister, are you aware of such incident in which the revolutionaries of Zuwara did not respect the ceasefire?

A: we do not say there was a "breach" or not, as we should not concentrate on these issues, and instead we ought to focus on resolving the issue; but yes I am aware of this incident and the people responsible were arrested. We do not wish to cover these issues in the media; these issues need not be covered by the media.

The presenter replied to the honourable minister, saying the media will always attempt to understand what is going on in the whole of Libya, before he returned to Subhi Juma, and asked him his opinion on the "breach" incident:

Subhi Juma speaking:

A: I would like to say something regarding the "breach" incident, and that is if it did take place, then the law should take its course; but honourable minister what was happening all day yesterday was that fighters from Regdalin were firing at Libyan government forces in "Sbikha", about 4km beyond the front line inside Regdalin's territory. Who fired at the Libyan army? Why is the Ministry of Defence always avoiding its responsibility? If the ministry does not wish to exaggerate the issue then it needs to investigate the issue and refer the perpetrators to justice. It was you (the government) who were late to intervene.

Q: is it true that Gaddafi's loyalists are still in the area of al-Jamil and Regdalin?

A: it is not us who confirmed this, we were left to fight the loyalists alone without any government help, and we regret to say that the Libyan government had abandoned us, except the NTC's spokesperson whom we thank for his courage, and who said the day before yesterday that there was no tribal war between the "Arabs" and the "Amazigh", as claimed by the Minister of Defence himself four days ago, but now, six days later, the minister says he does not know the details of the incident, even though we have met with him (the Minister of Defence) in Tripoli and explained everything to him, and yet all we hear from him right now is: "I do not know", "I have no details", "I cannot tell", and so on. How can this be possible?

The presenter returned to the minister:

Q:  what is your opinion honourable minister regarding the incident in Sbikha where government forces were attacked by fighters from Regdalin.
A: well, as I said, there is an "operation room" and the committee did not mention this incident. There was firing from different directions, he added, but at the end there was a ceasefire.

Q: but firing from where? Who was firing?
A: we have no confirmation of this from the "operations room".

Q: you heard the speaker from Zuwara talking about al-Jamil and Regdalin harbouring loyalists to this day, and that the speaker had mentioned that Mustafa Abduljalil had already acknowledged this. What would you say?
A: if  Mustafa Abduljalil mentioned this, then surely there are loyalists in the area, if you meant Gaddafi's loyalists. I am sure there are Gaddafi loyalists in many areas but not in the open. If however he or any other person knows of any such loyalists then their names should be determined and brought to justice.

The presenter presents the same question to al-Jamil's Nasr Addin Allafy:

A: my brother, I would like to mention that the first person who was martyred in the "Western Mountain" was one person from al-Jamil in Zintan. There are no "Gaddafi loyalists" neither in al-Jamil nor in Regdalin . . . I would like to say that the "media" should not "incite",  and instead should visit the areas where fighting is going on and report; come here and listen to the wise people.

The presenter replied saying: we think today we have invited all the three sides to speak, before he asked another speaker from Zuwara, a woman this time, about her opinion regarding this issue:

A: I would like to say that not all the people in al-Jamil and Regdalin are loyalists, in fact many of them are not. But I would like to ask why cannot they admit there are some loyalists among them and invite the ministry of defence to deal with them?

Q: what is the evidence for this?
A: the evidence is that the people of al-Jamil and Regdalin themselves say there are loyalists among them. There is one teacher in al-Jamil saying things I cannot repeat.

Finally, the speaker returns to Nasr Addin Allafy for the final word:

Q: Nasr Addin, what is your opinion: are there any Gaddafi's loyalists in al-Jamil and Regdalin?
A: I tell you right now Gaddafi's loyalists exist in every town in Libya.

Q: are there any loyalists in Zuwara, for example?
A: they exist among all the tribes.

Q: the question is specific: are there any loyalists in Zuwara?
A: the son of the tyrant, Saadi, where was he? He was in Zuwara.

Q: he may have been in Zuwara, but my question is simple: are there any loyalists in Zuwara now?
A: yes, there are loyalists in Zuwara now.

[Temehu's note: Saadi [the son of Gaddafi] had indeed a place in Zuwara, since he was the head of Zuwara's Free Trade Zone project, and therefore he was in Zuwara on official business. Also, in the video interview (included in the last update) Nasr Addin Allafy denied the existence of any loyalists in al-Jamil and Regdalin.]

That was the summary of the above interview.


  • The Defence Minister at least confirms the incident took place near Alassa before the kidnapped were taken to Regdalin. The NTC and the media said the fight was started in al-Jamil after Zuwara's hunters killed a person from al-Jamil in al-Jamil by mistake.

  • The Minister of Defence does not complete the story by saying they were taken to al-Jamil from Regdalin, (probably) like he said because the media should not report everything.

  • Regarding the attack on the Libyan army, originally reported by the media to have been initiated by Zuwara fighters, he said the Ministry of Defence has no confirmation of this and the "operations room" did not file a report regarding this incident, but then in the same answer he said "There was firing from different directions"; and when he was asked to elaborate and say who was firing, he repeated the same answer: the operations room did not report such incident.  If there was no report then how did he know there was firing from different directions?

  • This compels one to ask: what was the media's source for the allegations made against Zuwara?

Who is this Mohammad Salem Adwib and what did he exactly say?


Appearing official and in military uniform, Mr. Mohammad visited a hospital in al-Jamil, only to tell the staff and the injured that the "Libyan government is with them", "the Libyan army is with them", and that "all Libya is with them". He also stated that those responsible will be punished. Anyone in their right mind would instantly know that such claims can never be official, because the government will not and ought not take sides in such a critical stage. The video has angered viewers from Zuwara and elsewhere, and complained to the Ministry of Defence. Some sources from Zuwara say Khamis Gaddafi, presumably killed five times during the official war (when the UN was still involved) is currently hiding in or around Regdalin.

And although the NTC said all along that it is "powerless" against the militias wreaking havoc across Libya, this is the first time Mustafa Abduljalil informs the media in Tripoli that he will use "force" if needed




The NTC needs to intervene and effect a permanent solution to this war, once and for all. All Libyans need to halt all hostilities against each other. The leaders of Libya and the local leaders of Zuwara, Regdalin and al-Jamil must meet and agree a permanent solution to this 13-month-old war. No matter what the UN (and its military allies) did violence is not the answer.



Berber mothers from Zuwara asking the same question many Libyans, and others, have been asking for some time:
where is the UN now?

Well, the UN left nearly a year ago, having completed its mission "with precision" (it said), when civilians were still being blasted across the ruined country, and just 11 days after they said Gaddafi's convoy was bombed before the old man himself was shot dead. Didn't the Libyans uprise against tyranny to implement justice and observe the rule of law? Did it ever occur to them that igniting revenge will only erupt more fires to scorch whatever is left? The Libyans need to know that even though the UN had authorised violence to send the country back to square one it does not mean that violence is the answer. National reconciliation is what your enemies fear most from you, and the only way to defeat the anonymous enemy, regardless of who that is and regardless of how smart it is, is not to fight each other. Peace upon you all.